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100 metres Training

As all athletes have different needs, a single program suitable for all athletes is not possible. A training program has to be developed to meet the athlete's individual needs and consider many factors: gender, age, strengths, weaknesses, objectives, training facilities etc. The program supplied here is just an example and will require updates to meet your specific aims and objectives.

Before starting any training, you must have a medical examination to ensure it is safe for you to do so.

Overview of a Training Program

The season's training plan is based on six phases, each comprising a repeated four-week program. The workload in the first three weeks of the four-week program increases each week (easy, medium, hard), and the fourth week comprises active recovery and tests to monitor training progress. The four-week cycles aim to:

  • Build you up to a level of fitness (3 weeks)
  • Test, recovery and adjustment of the training program (1 week)
  • Build you up to a higher level of fitness (3 weeks)
  • Test, recovery and adjustment of the training program (1 week)
  • Build you up to an even higher level of fitness (3 weeks)
  • and so on

Remember, a training program is athlete specific, and the results of the tests in the fourth week can be used to adjust the training in the next four-week cycle to address any limitations.

The content and quantity of training each week and phase will depend on many factors. The page on Planning provides an insight into the process of data gathering and preparing training programs.

Developing Energy Systems (100m)

The following table, Winkler & Gambetta (1987)[1], indicates the types of training volumes that can be used to develop the 100-meter sprinter's energy systems and can be used to guide you in the preparation of training programs.

Type of Training Component Distance % PB Recovery
Total Distance
Extensive Tempo Aerobic capacity >200m <70% <45"/<2' 1400-3000
Extensive Tempo Aerobic power >100m 70-80% 30-90"/2-3' 1400-1800
Intensive Tempo Lactic capacity >80m 80-90% 30"-5'/3'-10' 800-1800
Speed Anaerobic power 20-80m 90-95% 3-5'/6-8' 300-800
Speed Alactic power 20-80m 95-100% 3-5'/6-8' 300-500
Speed Anaerobic capacity 30-80m 90-95% 1-2'/5-7' 300-800
Speed Alactic power 30-80m 95-100% 2-3'/7-19' 300-800
Speed Endurance Glycolytic capacity <80m 90-95% 1'/3-4' 300-800
Speed Endurance Glycolytic power <80m 95-100% 1'/4' 300-800
Speed Endurance Anaerobic capacity 80-150m 90-95% 5'-6' 300-900
Speed Endurance Lactic power 80-150m 95-100% 6'-10' 300-600
Special Endurance I Anaerobic capacity 150-300m 90-95% 10'-12' 600-900
Special Endurance I Anaerobic power 150-300m 95-100% 12'-15' 300-900
Special Endurance II Lactic capacity 300-600m 90-95% 15'-20' 600-900
Special Endurance II Lactic power 300-600m 95-100% 15'-20' 300-600

Example Training Plan & Programs

The objective of each phase, with links to examples of a season's training plan and four-week training programs for phases 1, 2 and 3, are as follows:

  • Training Plan - General overview of the season by phases
  • Phase 1 - General development of strength, mobility, endurance and basic technique
  • Phase 2 - Development of specific fitness and advanced technical skills
  • Phase 3 - Competition experience - the achievement of qualification times for the main competition
  • Phase 4 - Adjustment of the technical model, preparation for the main competition
  • Phase 5 - Competition experience and achievement of outdoor objectives
  • Phase 6 - Active recovery - planning preparation for next season

The content of the four-week programs in phases four and five depends very much on the athlete's progress and competitive races. Your aim in these phases is to address any limitations the athlete may have to bring them to peak performance for the major competition in phase five.

Training Activities

The following are links to the appropriate page for the activities identified in the training programs.

Training Pace

The times for male and female athletes in the final of the 1992 Olympics 100 metres indicate that the first 20 metres of the race took approx. 30% of their race time and that the remaining time was evenly spread over the remaining 80 metres.

As 80 metres equals 0.7, one metre equals 0.7 รท 80, which is 0.00875 of the race time/metre. As 20 metres equals 30% (0.3), the remaining 80 metres equals 70% (0.7) of the race time. Based on this information, the time for a distance between 20 and 100 metres can be determined using the following algorithm:

  • Time=(0.00875tpb x (distance-20) ) + 0.3tpb

In the example, a 100-metre training program, the athlete's effort to apply to each session is indicated in terms of a percentage of the athlete's target personal best (tpb). e.g. 6 x 60 metres at 80% of 100 metres tpb. If the athlete's 100-metre tpb is 10.7 seconds, what time should they run the 60 metres sessions?

  • 100% pace time = 0.00875 x 10.7 x (60-20) + 0.3 x 10.7
  • 100% pace time = 6.96 seconds
  • 80% pace time = 6.96 x 100 ÷ 80 = 8.7 seconds

Each of the 60-metre runs should be completed in 8.7 seconds.

Training Pace Calculator

Enter your Target Personal Best Time for 100 metres, and the Training Session Distance, the Training Session Effort and then select the "Calculate Training Session Time" button.

Target Personal Best Time seconds   Training Session Distance metres
Training Session Effort %    
  Training Session Time seconds

Evaluation Tests

The following evaluation tests can be used to monitor the sprint athlete's development:

Sprint Time Predictors

Test results make it possible to predict potential times for a sprint event. The available sprint time predictors are:

Rules of Competition

The competition rules for this event are available from:


  1. WINKLER, G, GAMBETTA, V. (1987) Classifications of energy systems for sprint training. Track Techniques. 100, p. 3193-3195

Page Reference

If you quote information from this page in your work, then the reference for this page is:

  • MACKENZIE, B. (2001) 100 metres Training [WWW] Available from: [Accessed