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Most endurance athletes accept that tapering before a competition is beneficial, but few understand why.


A trial was conducted back in the 1990s by a group of Canadian researchers at the McMaster University in Ontario (Shepley et al. 1992)[1]. The trial was conducted for one week, with a group of experienced endurance athletes who all run approximately 50 miles a week in training. The athletes were split into three groups, with each group working a different training program for the week. At the end of the week, the performance improvement for each group was checked. The results were as follows:

Group Training program % reduction in
training load
% improvement
1 No training 100% 0%
2 18 miles (easy running) 64% 6%
3 6 miles (500-metre sessions at max effort) 88% 22%

As can be seen from the table, group 3 achieved the best improvement in their performance (22%). Also, group 3 enjoyed four advantages over the other groups.

  • More glycogen in the leg muscles
  • Increased density of red blood cells
  • Increased blood plasma
  • Increased enzyme activity in their leg muscles

Similar tests have also concluded that as well as achieving the above advantages, there is also an improvement in the neural system. The result is that the athlete has an improved ability of a better rested nervous system to control and co-ordinate better-rested muscles at faster running speeds. These are all very desirable in an athlete's preparation for a major competition.

What to do

If your total mileage is less than 50 miles a week and your event is less than one hour, then:

  • taper for 7 to 10 days
  • reduce the total mileage by 80%
  • training intensities high interval sessions (90% VO2 max)
  • reduce the frequency of training by 20%

If your total mileage is more than 50 miles a week and your event is greater than one hour, then taper for 14 to 20 days otherwise use the same strategy.

Tapering in training

If tapering in this way can have this effect on your performance, then perhaps you should consider including tapering weeks in your season's training programs. With all my athletes, I use a four-week cycle, where the fourth week is an active rest and test week. In this fourth week, the training load is reduced by 70%, 2 or 3 tests at max effort are performed, and light sessions are included between tests. The tests are used to monitor progress made in the preceding three weeks of training, and the results are considered in the planning of the next 4-week cycle.

The following are examples of taper programs:


  1. SHEPLEY, J.D. et al. (1992) Physiological effects of tapering in highly trained athletes. Journal of Applied Physiology, 72 (2), p. 706-711

Related References

The following references provide additional information on this topic:

  • ZARAS, N. et al. (2014) Effects of tapering with light vs. Heavy loads on track and field throwing performance. Journal of strength and conditioning research/National Strength & Conditioning Association
  • SPILSBURY, K. L. et al. (2014) Tapering strategies in elite British endurance runners. European journal of sport science, p. 1-7
  • Toubekis, A. G. et al. (2013) Competitive Performance, Training Load and Physiological Responses During Tapering in Young Swimmers. Journal of human kinetics, 38, p. 125-134.

Page Reference

If you quote information from this page in your work, then the reference for this page is:

  • MACKENZIE, B. (2000) Tapering [WWW] Available from: [Accessed

Related Pages

The following Sports Coach pages provide additional information on this topic: