Heart Rate Zones
Heart rate training zones are calculated by considering your Maximum Heart Rate (HRmax) and your Resting Heart Rate (HRrest). Within each training zone, subtle physiological effects enhance your fitness.
The Energy Efficient or Recovery Zone - 60% to 70%
Training within this zone develops endurance and aerobic capacity. Another advantage of running in this zone is that you may lose weight while you are happily fat burning, you may lose weigh. You will be allowing your muscles to re-energise with glycogen, which has been expended during those faster-paced workouts.
The Aerobic Zone - 70% to 80%
Training in this zone will develop your cardiovascular system. The body's ability to transport oxygen to, and carbon dioxide away from, the working muscles can be developed and improved. As you become fitter and stronger from training in this zone, it will be possible to run some of your long weekends runs up to 75%, so getting the benefits of some fat burning and improved aerobic capacity.
The Anaerobic Zone - 80% to 90%
Training in this zone will develop your lactic acid system. In this zone, your anaerobic threshold (AT) is found - sometimes referred to the point of deflection (POD). During these heart rates, the amount of fat being utilised as the primary energy source is reduced, and glycogen stored in the muscle is predominantly used. One of the by-products of burning this glycogen is lactic acid. There is a point at which the body can no longer remove the lactic acid from the working muscles quickly enough. This is your anaerobic threshold (AT). Through the correct training, it is possible to delay the AT by increasing your ability to deal with the lactic acid for a longer time or by pushing the AT higher.
The Red Line Zone 90% to 100%
Training in this zone will only be possible for short periods. It effectively trains your fast-twitch muscle fibres and helps to develop speed. This zone is reserved for interval running, and only the very fit can train effectively within this zone.
Heart rate variations for a given intensity
A reduction in heart rate for a given intensity is usually due to improved fitness. Still, several other factors might explain why heart rates can vary for a given intensity:
To determine your resting heart rate (HRrest) is very easy. Find somewhere nice and quiet, lie down and relax. Position a watch or clock where you can see it while lying down. After 20 minutes, determine your resting pulse rate (beats/min). Use this value as your (HRrest).
If you have a heart rate monitor, put it on before you lie down. After the 20 minutes, check the recordings and identify the lowest value. Use this value as your HRrest.
The heart is a muscle, so it will become larger and become more efficient as a pump with regular exercise. As a result, you will find your resting heart rate gets lower, so you will need to check your HRrest (e.g. Monthly) regularly.
Calculation of a zone value
The calculation of a zone value, X%, is performed in the following way:
Example: The athlete's HRmax is 180, and their HRrest is 60 - determine the 70% value
VO2 max - using heart rates
Research by Uth et al. (2004) found that VO2 max can be estimated indirectly from an individual's maximum heart rate (HRmax) and resting heart rate (HRrest) with an accuracy that compares favourably with other common VO2 max tests. It is given by:
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