Sargent Jump Test
Testing and measurement are the means of collecting information
upon which subsequent performance evaluations and
decisions are made but in the analysis we need to bear in mind the factors that may influence the results.
The Sargent Jump Test (Sargent 1921), also known as the vertical jump test, was developed by Dr. Dudley Allen Sargent (1849-1924).
To monitor the development of the athlete's elastic leg
To undertake this test you will require:
- Tape measure
- Step Ladder
How to conduct the test
- The athlete warms up for 10 minutes
- The athlete chalks the end of his/her finger tips
- The athlete stands side onto the wall, keeping both feet remaining on the ground, reaches up as high as possible with one hand and marks the wall with the tips of the fingers (M1)
- The athlete from a static position jumps as high as possible and marks the wall with the chalk on his fingers (M2)
- The assistant measures and records the distance between M1 and M2
- The athlete repeats the test 3 times
- The assistant calculates the average of the recorded distances and uses this value to assess the athlete's performance
The following normative data is available for this test.
The following normative data, adapted from Chu (1996), is for world class athletes.
||71.0 - 81.3
||60.9 - 70.9
||50.8 - 60.8
||60.9 - 71.1
||50.8 - 60.8
||40.6 - 50.7
The following are national norms for 16 to 19 year olds (Davis 2000)
||50 - 65cm
||40 - 49cm
||30 - 39cm
||47 - 58cm
||36 - 46cm
||26 - 35cm
The following table is for 15 to 16 year olds (Beashel 1997)
||56 - 65cm
||50 - 55cm
||49 - 40cm
||51 - 60cm
||41 - 50cm
||35 - 40cm
The following table is for adult athletes (20+) (Arkinstall 2010)
||56 - 70cm
||41 - 55cm
||31 - 40cm
||46 - 60cm
||31 - 45cm
||21 - 30cm
A heavier person jumping the same height as a lighter person has to do more work as they have a larger mass to move. It is sometimes useful to convert the vertical jump height to units of power. Power cannot be calculated (Power = Work ÷ Time) since the Time the force is acted on the body is unknown. Formulas have been developed that estimate power from vertical jump measurements. In these formulas mass = body weight and VJ = Vertical Jump height.
The Lewis formula (Fox & Mathews, 1974) estimates average power.
- Average Power (Watts) = √4.9 x mass (kg) x √VJ (m) x 9.81
The Sayers Equation (Sayers et al. 1999) estimates peak power output.
- Peak power (W) = 60.7 x VJ (cm) + 45.3 x mass(kg) - 2055
Harman et al. (1991) established equations for peak and average power.
- Peak power (W) = 61.9 x VJ (cm) + 36.0 x mass (kg) + 1822
- Average power (W) = 21.2 x VJ (cm) + 23.0 x mass (kg) – 1393
Johnson & Bahamonde Formula
Johnson and Bahamonde (1996) established equations for peak and average power.
- Peak power (W) = 78.5 x VJ (cm) + 60.6 x mass (kg) -15.3 x height (cm) -1308
- Average power (W) = 41.4 x VJ (cm) + 31.2 x mass (kg) -13.9 x height (cm) + 431
Analysis of the test result is by comparing it with the athlete's previous results for this test. It is expected that, with appropriate training between each test, the analysis would indicate an improvement in the athlete's leg strength.
This test is suitable for active individuals but not for those
where the test would be contraindicated.
Test reliability refers to the degree to which a test is consistent and stable in measuring what it is intended to measure. Reliability will depend upon how strict the test is conducted and the individual's level of motivation to perform the test. The following link provides a variety of factors that may influence the results and therefore the test reliability.
Test validity refers to the degree to which the test actually measures what it claims to measure and the extent to which inferences, conclusions, and decisions made on the basis of test scores are appropriate and meaningful. This test provides a means to monitor the effect of training on the athlete's physical development.
- Minimal equipment required
- Simple to set up and conduct
- The test can be administered by the athlete
- Can be conducted almost anywhere
- Specific facilities required
- Assistant required to administer the test
- HARMAN, E.A. et al.
(1991) Estimation of Human Power Output From Vertical Jump. Journal of Applied Sport Science Research, 5(3), p. 116-120
- JOHSON, D. L. and Bahamonde, R. (1996) Power Output Estimate in University Athletes. Journal of strength and Conditioning Research, 10(3), p. 161-166
- SAYERS, S. et al. (1999) Cross-validation of three jump power equations. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 31, p. 572
- CHU, D.A. (1996) Explosive Power and Strength. Champaign: Human Kinetics
- DAVIS, B. et al. (2000) Physical Education and the study of sport. 4th ed. London: Harcourt Publishers. p. 123
- FOX, E.L. and MATHEWS, D.K. (1974) The interval training: conditioning for sports and general fitness. Philadelphia PA: Saunders. p. 257-258
- SARGENT, D.A. (1921) The Physical Test of a Man. American Physical Education
Review, 26, p. 188-194
- BEASHEL,P. and TAYLOR, J. (1997) The World of Sport Examined. Croatia: Thomas Nelson and Sons. p. 57
- ARKINSTALL, M et al. (2010) VCE Physical Education 2. Malaysia: Macmillian. p.248
The following references provide additional information on this topic:
- BUI, H. T. et al. (2014) Comparison and analysis of three different methods to evaluate vertical jump height. Clinical physiology and functional imaging.
- ROUIS, M. et al. (2014) Relationship between vertical jump and maximal power output of legs and arms: Effects of ethnicity and sport. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports
- DE SALLES, P. et al. (2012) Validity and Reproducibility of the Sargent Jump Test in the Assessment of Explosive Strength in Soccer Players. Journal of human kinetics, 33, p. 115-121
If you quote information from this page in your work then the reference for this page is:
- MACKENZIE, B. (2007) Sargent Jump Test [WWW] Available from: https://www.brianmac.co.uk/sgtjump.htm [Accessed
The following Sports Coach pages provide additional information on this topic: