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100 metres Training

A training program has to be developed to meet the individual needs of the athlete and take into consideration many factors: gender, age, strengths, weaknesses, objectives, training facilities etc. As all athletes have different needs, a single program suitable for all athletes is not possible. The program supplied here is just an example and will require updates to meet your specific aims and objectives.

Prior to starting any training, it is recommended you have a medical examination to ensure it is safe for you to do so.

Overview of a Training Program

The seasons training plan is based on six phases where each phase comprises of a repeated four week program. The workload in the first three weeks of the four week program increase each week (easy, medium, hard) and the fourth week comprises of active recovery and tests to monitor training progress. The aim of the four week cycles is to:

  • Build you up to a level of fitness (3 weeks)
  • Test, recovery and adjustment of the training program (1 week)
  • Build you up to higher level of fitness (3 weeks)
  • Test, recovery and adjustment of the training program (1 week)
  • Build you up to an even higher level of fitness (3 weeks)
  • and so on

Remember a training program is athlete specific and the results of the tests in the fourth week can be used to adjust the training in the next four week cycle to address any limitations.

The content and quantity of training in each week and phase will depend on many factors. The page on Planning provides an insight into the process of data gathering and preparing training programs.

Developing the Energy Systems (100m)

The following table, Winkler & Gambetta (1987)[1], indicates the types of training volumes that can be used to develop the 100 meter sprinter's energy systems and can be used to guide you in the preparation of training programs.

Type of Training Component Distance % PB Recovery
Rep/Set
Total Distance
Extensive Tempo Aerobic capacity >200m <70% <45"/<2' 1400-3000
Extensive Tempo Aerobic power >100m 70-80% 30-90"/2-3' 1400-1800
Intensive Tempo Lactic capacity >80m 80-90% 30"-5'/3'-10' 800-1800
Speed Anaerobic power 20-80m 90-95% 3-5'/6-8' 300-800
Speed Alactic power 20-80m 95-100% 3-5'/6-8' 300-500
Speed Anaerobic capacity 30-80m 90-95% 1-2'/5-7' 300-800
Speed Alactic power 30-80m 95-100% 2-3'/7-19' 300-800
Speed Endurance Glycolytic capacity <80m 90-95% 1'/3-4' 300-800
Speed Endurance Glycolytic power <80m 95-100% 1'/4' 300-800
Speed Endurance Anaerobic capacity 80-150m 90-95% 5'-6' 300-900
Speed Endurance Lactic power 80-150m 95-100% 6'-10' 300-600
Special Endurance I Anaerobic capacity 150-300m 90-95% 10'-12' 600-900
Special Endurance I Anaerobic power 150-300m 95-100% 12'-15' 300-900
Special Endurance II Lactic capacity 300-600m 90-95% 15'-20' 600-900
Special Endurance II Lactic power 300-600m 95-100% 15'-20' 300-600

Example Training Plan & Programs

The objective of each phase, with links to examples of a season's training plan and four week training programs for phases 1, 2 and 3, are as follows:

  • Training Plan - General overview of the season by phases
  • Phase 1 - General development of strength, mobility, endurance and basic technique
  • Phase 2 - Development of specific fitness and advanced technical skills
  • Phase 3 - Competition experience - achievement of qualification times for main competition
  • Phase 4 - Adjustment of technical model, preparation for the main competition
  • Phase 5 - Competition experience and achievement of outdoor objectives
  • Phase 6 - Active recovery - planning preparation for next season

The content of the four week programs in phases four and five depends very much on the athletes progress and competition races. Your aim in these phases is to address any limitations the athlete may have in order to bring him/her to a peak of performance for the major competition in phase five.

Training Activities

The following are links to the appropriate page for the activities identified on the training programs.

Training Pace

The times for both the male and female athletes in the final of the 1992 Olympics 100 metres indicates that the first 20 metres of the race took approx. 30% of their race time and that the remaining time was evenly spread over the remaining 80 metres.

As 20 metres equals 30% (0.3) so the remaining 80 metres equals 70% (0.7) of the race time. As 80 metres equals 0.7 so one metre equals 0.7 ÷ 80 which is 0.00875 of the race time/metre. Based on this information the time for a distance, between 20 and 100 metres, can be determined using the following algorithm:

  • Time=(0.00875tpb x (distance-20) ) + 0.3tpb

In the example 100 metre training program the effort the athlete is to apply to each session is indicated in terms of a percentage of the athlete's target personal best (tpb). e.g. 6 x 60 metres at 80% of 100 metres tpb. If the athlete's 100 metre tpb is 10.7 seconds then what time should he/she run the 60 metres sessions?

  • 100% pace time = 0.00875 x 10.7 x (60-20) + 0.3 x 10.7
  • 100% pace time = 6.96 seconds
  • 80% pace time = 6.96 x 100 ÷ 80 = 8.7 seconds

Each of the 60 metre runs should be completed in 8.7 seconds

Training Pace Calculator

Enter your Target Personal Best Time for 100 metres, the Training Session Distance, the Training Session Effort and then select the "Calculate Training Session Time" button.

Target Personal Best Time seconds
Training Session Distance metres
Training Session Effort %
   
   
Training Session Time seconds

Evaluation Tests

The following evaluation tests can be used to monitor the sprint athlete's development:

Sprint Time Predictors

Based on test results it is possible to predict potential times for a sprint event. The available sprint time predictors are:

Rules of Competition

The competition rules for this event can be obtained from:

Referenced Material

  1. WINKLER, G, GAMBETTA, V. (1987) Classifications of energy systems for sprint training. Track Techniques. 100, p. 3193-3195

Page Reference

The reference for this page is:

  • MACKENZIE, B. (2001) 100 metres Training [WWW] Available from: http://www.brianmac.co.uk/sprints/tp100.htm [Accessed

Associated Pages

The following Sports Coach pages should be read in conjunction with this page:

Associated Books

The following books provide more information related to this topic:

  • Sprints and Relays, F. W. Dick
  • Sprinting and Hurdling, P. Warden
  • How to Teach Track Events, M. Arnold