Code of Ethics & Conduct
The following has been developed by the National Coaching
Foundation from the Code of Ethics (1989) published by the British Institute of
Sports Coaches (BISC). It also adopts the principles contained in the Council
of Europe's Code of Sports Ethics. The BISC Code formed the value statement
underpinning the National Vocational Qualification Standards (1992) for
Coaching, Teaching and Instructing. This code has replaced the original BISC
code as the value statement in the revised standards (1998). The code is a
framework within which to work and is a series of guidelines rather than a set
Sports coaches are expected to conform to ethical standards in a
number of areas: humanity, relationships, commitment, co-operation, integrity, advertising, confidentiality, abuse of privilege, safety and competence.
Coaches must respect the rights, dignity and worth of every human
being and their ultimate right to self-determination. Specifically, coaches
must treat everyone equitably and sensitively, within the context of their
activity and ability, regardless of gender, ethnic origin, cultural background,
sexual orientation, religion or political affiliation.
The good coach will be concerned primarily with the well-being,
safety, protection and future of the individual performer. There must be a
balance between the development of performance and the social, emotional,
intellectual and physical needs of the individual.
A key element in a coaching relationship is the development of
independence. Performers must be encouraged and guided to accept responsibility
for their own behaviour and performance in training, in competition, and in
their domestic, academic or business life.
Coaches are responsible for setting and monitoring the boundaries
between a working relationship and friendship with their performers. This is
particularly important when the performer is a young person. The coach must
realise that certain situations or friendly words and actions could be
misinterpreted, not only by the performer, but also by outsiders (or other
members of a squad or group of performers) motivated by jealousy, dislike or
mistrust, and could lead to allegations of misconduct or impropriety.
Where physical contact between coach and performer is a necessary
part of the coaching process, coaches must ensure that no action on their part
could be misconstrued and that any National Governing Body (NGB) guidelines on
this matter are followed.
The relationship between coach and performer relies heavily on
mutual trust and respect. This means that the performer should be made aware of
the coach's Qualifications and experience, and must be given the opportunity to
consent to or decline proposals for training, performance or competition.
Coaches should clarify in advance with performers (and/or
employers) the number of sessions, fees (if any) and method of payment. They
should explore with performers (and/or employers) the expectation of the
outcome of coaching. Written contracts may be appropriate in some
Coaches have a responsibility to declare to their performers
and/or employers any other current coaching commitments. They should also find
out if any prospective client is receiving instruction from another
teacher/coach. If so, the teacher/coach should be contacted to discuss the
Coaches who become aware of a conflict between their obligation to
their performers and their obligation to their NGB (or other organisations
employing them), must make explicit to ail parties concerned the nature of the
conflict, and the loyalties and responsibilities involved.
Coaches should expect a similar level of reciprocal commitment
from their performers. In particular, the performer (parent/guardian in the
case of a minor) should inform the coach of any change in circumstances that
might affect the coach/performer relationship.
Coaches should receive appropriate acknowledgment for their
contribution to the performer's progress and achievement. Where money is earned
from performances, it is reasonable to expect the coach should receive an
appropriate share of the rewards. Such apportionment with any attendant
conditions should be agreed in advance (in writing) to avoid any
Coaches should communicate and co-operate with other sports and
allied professions in the best interests of their performers. An example of
such contact could be the seeking of:
- educational and career counselling for young performers whose
involvement in sport impinges upon their studies
- sport science advice through the British Association of Sport
and Exercise Sciences (BASES)
Coaches must communicate and co-operate with registered medical
and ancillary practitioners in the diagnosis, treatment and management of their
performers' medical and psychological problems.
Coaches must not encourage performers to violate the rules of
their sport. They should actively seek to discourage and condemn such action
and encourage performers to obey the spirit of the rules.
Coaches must not compromise their performers by advocating
measures that could constitute unfair advantage. They must not adopt practices
to accelerate performance improvement that might jeopardise the safety, total
well-being and future participation of the performer. Coaches must never
advocate or condone the use of prohibited drugs or other banned performance
Coaches must ensure that the activities, training and competition
programs they advocate and direct ore appropriate for the age, maturity,
experience and ability of the individual performer.
Coaches must treat opponents with due respect, both in victory and
defeat, and should encourage their performers to act in a similar manner. A key
role for a coach is to prepare performers to respond to success and failure in
a dignified manner.
Coaches must accept responsibility for the conduct of their
performers and discourage inappropriate behaviour in training, competition, and
away from the sporting arena.
Advertising by sports coaches in respect of qualifications,
training and/or services must be accurate and professionally restrained.
Coaches must be able to present evidence of current qualifications upon
request. Evidence should also be available to support any claim associated with
the promotion of their services.
Coaches must not display any affiliation with an organisation in a
manner that falsely implies sponsorship or accreditation by that
Sports coaches inevitably gather a great deal of personal
information about performers in the course of a working relationship. Coach and
performer must reach agreement about what is to be regarded as confidential
information (i.e. not divulged to a third party without the express approval of
Confidentiality does not preclude the disclosure of information
about a performer to persons who can be judged to have a right to know. For
- Evaluation for competitive selection purposes
- Recommendations for employment
- In pursuit of disciplinary action involving performers within
- In pursuit of disciplinary action by a sports organisation
against one of its members
- Legal and medical requirements for disclosure
- Recommendations to parents/family where the health and safety
of performers might be at stake
- In pursuit of action to protect children from abuse
Abuse of Privilege
The sports coach is privileged to have regular contact with
performers and occasionally to travel and reside with performers in the course
of coaching and competitive practice. A coach must not attempt to exert undue
influence over the performer in order to obtain personal benefit or reward.
Coaches must consistently display high personal standards and
project a favourable image of their sport and of coaching to performers, their
parents/families, other coaches, officials, spectators, the media and the
Personal appearance is a matter of individual taste but the sports
coach has an obligation to project an image of health, cleanliness and
Sports coaches should never smoke while coaching.
Coaches should not drink alcohol so soon before coaching that it
would affect their competence to coach, compromise the safety of the performers
or obviously indicate they had been drinking (e.g. smell of alcohol on
Within the limits of their control, coaches have a responsibility
to ensure as for as possible the safety of the performers with whom they
All reasonable steps should be taken to establish a safe working
The work done and the manner in which it is done should be in
keeping with the regular and approved practice with their sport as determined
by the NGB.
The activity undertaken should be suitable for the age, physical
and emotional maturity, experience and ability of the performers.
Coaches have a duty to protect children from harm and abuse.
The performers should have been systematically prepared for the
activity and made aware of their personal responsibilities in terms of
Coaches should arrange adequate insurance to cover all aspects of
their coaching practice.
Coaches shall confine themselves to practice in those elements of
sport for which their training and competence is recognised by the appropriate
NGB. Training includes the accumulation of knowledge and skills through formal
coach education courses, independent research and the accumulation of relevant
The National Occupational Standards for Coaching, Teaching and
Instructing (and/or the approved NGB coaching awards) provide the framework for
assessing competence at the different levels of coaching practice. Competence
to coach should normally be verified through evidence of qualifications.
Competence cannot be inferred solely from evidence of prior experience.
Coaches must be able to recognise and accept when to refer
performers to other coaches or agencies. It is their responsibility, as for as
possible, to verify the competence and integrity of any other person to whom
they refer a performer.
Coaches should regularly seek ways of increasing their personal
and professional development.
Coaches should welcome evaluation of their work by colleagues and
be able to account to performers, employers, National Governing Bodies (NGBs) and colleagues for what they
do and why.
Coaches have a responsibility to themselves and their performers
to maintain their own effectiveness, resilience and abilities. They should
recognise when their personal resources are so depleted that help is needed.
This may necessitate the withdrawal from coaching temporarily or
The following references provide additional information on this topic:
- WIERSMA, L. D., and SHERMAN, C. P. (2005) Volunteer youth sport coaches' perspectives of coaching education/certification and parental codes of conduct. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 76 (3), p. 324-338
- MCNAMEE, M. (1998) Celebrating trust: virtues and rules in the ethical conduct of sports coaches. Ethics and sport, p. 148-168
- MALKIN, K. et al. (2000) A critical evaluation of training needs for child protection in UK sport. Managing Leisure, 5 (3), p. 151-160
The reference for this page is:
- MACKENZIE, B. (2001) Code of Ethics and Conduct for Sports Coaches [WWW] Available from: http://www.brianmac.co.uk/ethics.htm [Accessed
The following Sports Coach pages provide additional information on this topic: