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Movement Analysis

Detailed analysis of movement is a complex activity requiring sophisticated equipment. However, basic analysis of movement can be done visually and should involve the following:

  • A description of the actual movements which occur at the joints involved
  • The plane(s) in which the movement occurs
  • The muscles producing the movement
  • The function of the muscles involved (agonists, antagonists, synergists & fixators)
  • The type of contraction (isotonic -concentric or eccentric, isometric)
  • The range of the muscle action (inner, middle, outer)

Analysis of Sprinting

The leg action in running is one that takes place in a sagittal plane about a frontal axis and involves the hip, knee and ankle joints.

The bones of the hip involved are the femur and pelvic girdle which form a ball and socket joint.
The bones of the knee involved are the femur and tibia which form a hinge joint.
The bones of the ankle involved are the tibia and calcaneus which form a modified joint.

Each of these joints produces two actions, one when the leg is in contact with the ground (driving phase) and one when the leg is not in contact with the ground (recovery phase).

Driving Phase

Joints involved Action Agonist Muscle
Hip Extension and hyperextension Gluteal muscles (gluteus maximus and gluteus minimus) and Hamstrings (biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus)
Knee Extension Quadriceps group of muscles (rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and vastus intermedialis)
Ankle Plantar flexion Gastrocnemius

Recovery phase

Joints involved Action Agonist Muscle
Hip Flexion Iliopsoas
Knee Flexion Hamstrings (biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus)
Ankle Dorsi flexion Tibialis anterior

Analysis of Throwing

Throwing comprises of two phases, the preparatory phase and the throwing phase.

Most actions are rotational in the transverse plane and longitudinal axis and the two joints primarily involved are the elbow and shoulder.

The elbow is a hinge joint formed by the humerus and ulna.

The shoulder is a ball and socket joint formed between the humerus and the scapula.

Note: The javelin is incorrectly held. See the Javelin section for more details.

Throwing

Preparatory phase

Joints involved Articulating bones Action Agonist Muscle
Shoulder Humerus and scapula Horizontal hyperextension Posterior deltoids and latissimus dorsi
Elbow Humerus and ulna Extension Triceps brachii

Throwing phase

Joints involved Articulating bones Action Agonist Muscle
Shoulder Humerus and scapula Horizontal flexion Anterior deltoids and Pectoralis major
Elbow Humerus and ulna Flexion Biceps brachii

Analysis of racket strokes

There are two phases to striking a ball with a racket, the preparatory phase and the striking phase.

Most actions are rotational in the transverse plane and longitudinal axis and the three joints concerned are the wrist, elbow and the shoulder

The elbow is a hinge joint formed by the humerus and ulna.

The shoulder is a ball and socket joint formed between the humerus and the scapula

The wrist forms a condyloid joint between the ulna and carpal bones

Racket

Preparatory Phase

Joints involved Articulating bones Action Agonist Muscle
Wrist Ulna and carpal
Radius and ulna
Supination Supinator
Elbow Humerus and ulna Extension Triceps brachii
Shoulder Humerus and scapula Horizontal hyperextension Posterior deltoid and latissimus dorsi

Striking Phase

Joints involved Articulating bones Action Agonist Muscle
Wrist Ulna and carpal
Radius and ulna
Pronation Pronator teres
Elbow Humerus and ulna Flexion Biceps brachii
Shoulder Humerus and scapula Horizontal flexion Pectoralis major and Anterior deltoid
Trunk   Rotation External obliques

Analysis of jumping

The action in jumping is one that takes place in a sagittal plane about a transverse axis and involves the hip, knee and ankle joints.

The bones of the hip involved are the femur and pelvic girdle which form a ball and socket joint.

The bones of the knee involved are the femur and tibia which form a hinge joint.

The bones of the ankle involved are the tibia and calcaneus which form a modified joint.

Jumping

 

Joints involved Action Agonist Muscle
Hip Extension and hyperextension Gluteal muscles (gluteus maximus and gluteus minimus) and Hamstrings (biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus)
Knee Extension Quadriceps group of muscles (rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and vastus intermedialis)
Ankle Plantar flexion Gastrocnemius

Analysis of Kicking

The action in kicking is one that takes place in a sagittal plane about a frontal axis and involves the hip, knee and ankle joints.

The bones of the hip involved are the femur and pelvic girdle which form a ball and socket joint.

The bones of the knee involved are the femur and tibia which form a hinge joint.

The bones of the ankle involved are the tibia and calcaneus which form a modified joint.

Kicking comprises of two phases, the preparatory phase and the kicking phase.

Kicking Action

Preparatory Phase

Joints involved Action Agonist Muscle
Hip Extension and hyperextension Gluteal muscles (gluteus maximus and gluteus minimus)
Knee Flexion Hamstrings (biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus)
Ankle Plantar flexion Gastrocnemius

Kicking phase

Joints involved Action Agonist Muscle
Hip Flexion Iliopsoas
Knee Extension Quadriceps group of muscles (rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and vastus intermedialis)
Ankle Plantar flexion Gastrocnemius

Agonist, Antagonist, Fixator & Synergist Muscles

Question often asked relate to which are the Agonist, Antagonist, Fixator & Synergist Muscles. When kicking the ball then:

  • Agonist - Quadricep muscles
  • Antagonist - Hamstring muscles
  • Fixator - Gluteus Maximus
  • Synergist - Abdominal muscles


Related References

The following references provide additional information on this topic:

  • PERRY, T. S. (1990) Biomechanically engineered athletes. Spectrum, IEEE, 27 (4), p. 43-44
  • NILSOON, N. (2014) Movement analysis of side step cutting motion in agility testing for elite athletes.

Page Reference

The reference for this page is:

  • MACKENZIE, B. (2007) Movement Analysis [WWW] Available from: http://www.brianmac.co.uk/moveanal.htm [Accessed

Related Pages

The following Sports Coach pages provide additional information on this topic: