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Range of Movement (ROM)

Plane and Axis

Movement is defined by reference to a plane and/or axis.

The Four Planes

Median or Sagittal Plane - a vertical plane which passes from front to rear dividing the body into right and left sections

Coronal or Frontal or Lateral Plane - which passes from side to side at right angles to the sagittal plane which divide the body into a front and back section

Transverse or Horizontal Plane - a horizontal plane which divides the body into an upper and lower section

Oblique Plane - any plane through the body that is not parallel to one of the former three.

Body planes and axis

The Three Axis

Frontal Axis - passes from side to side at right angles to the sagittal plane

Sagittal or Transverse Axis - passes horizontally from front to rear lying at right angles to the frontal plane

Longitudinal or Vertical Axis - passes from head to foot at right angles to the transverse plane

Joint Actions

Spinal Column

The vertebral column has the following normal ranges of movement: Flexion, Extension, Lateral Flexion and Rotation.

Flexion Extension
Lateral Flexion Rotation

Shoulder Girdle

The shoulder girdle has the following normal ranges of movement: Elevation, Depression, Adduction and Abduction.

Abduction Adduction
Elevation Depression

Shoulder Joint

The shoulder joint has the following normal ranges of movement: Flexion, Extension, Adduction, Abduction and Medial Rotation.

Flexion Extension
Abduction Adduction
Outward Medial Rotation Inward Medial Rotation Circumduction

Elbow Joint

The elbow joint has the following normal ranges of movement: Flexion, Extension, Pronation and Supination.

Pronation Supination
Flexion Extension

Wrist Joint

The wrist joint has the following normal ranges of movement: Flexion, Extension, Adduction, Abduction and Circumduction.

Flexsion Extension Adduction
Abduction Circumduction

Hip Joint

The hip joint has the following normal ranges of movement: Flexion, Extension, Adduction, Abduction, Medial Rotation and Lateral Rotation.

Flexion Extension Adduction
Lateral Rotation Medial Rotation Abduction

Knee Joint

The knee joint has the following normal ranges of movement: Flexion and Extension

Flexion Extension

Ankle Joint

The ankle joint has the following normal ranges of movement: Plantar Flexion, Dorsi Flexion, Inversion and Eversion.

Inversion Eversion
Dorsi Flexion Plantar Flexsion

Page Reference

The reference for this page is:

  • MACKENZIE, B. (2004) Range of Movement (ROM) [WWW] Available from: http://www.brianmac.co.uk/musrom.htm [Accessed

Associated Pages

The following Sports Coach pages should be read in conjunction with this page: