Sports Coach Logo

website Translator

            topics

site search facility

 

 

 

 


Triple Jump

The triple jump, which probably puts more stress on an athlete's body than any other field event, comprises of 4 phases: approach phase, hop phase, step phase and the jump phase.

New athletes

Start with the basic movements by having your athletes Hop, Step and then Jump from a standing start. The take off foot should be the athlete's strongest leg, as it will be used in the Hop and the Jump phases.

Teach the hop phase by having the athlete do:

  • a walking single leg hop
  • then incorporate the circling action of the hop leg
  • then multiple single leg hops with a circling leg, flat landing, and upright posture

Consecutive bounds duplicate the step and jump actions and the athlete should do these with a double-arm action and land full footed.

Combine the three phases of the jump by starting with Hop and Step combinations on grass and then add the Jump phase. Emphasize carrying the momentum from one phase to the next with an even rhythm for each phase. Once the jump phases have been put together, slowly add steps to the run up in accordance with the athlete's ability to control speed.

As in the long jump, the athlete's eyes should be focused beyond the pit for the entire jump.

Approach Phase

The approach run for the Triple Jump is similar to that of the Long Jump and the objective is to create the greatest amount of speed that can be controlled throughout the triple jump hop, step and jump phases. The athlete's strength and technique will determine the optimal run up distance and speed.

The Hop Phase

Hop

Coaching Points

  • The take-off leg is fully extended (Fig A)
  • Drive leg thigh should be nearly parallel to the ground at take-off and the foot relaxed (Fig A)
  • The foot of the take-off leg is then pulled to the buttocks (Fig B)
  • The drive leg rotates from in front of the body to behind it (Fig B-C)
  • Take-off leg begins to pull forward (Fig C)
  • As the thigh of the take-off leg reaches parallel, the lower portion of the leg extends past the knee, with the foot dorsi flexed (Fig C)
  • Once the leg is extended, the athlete then forcefully drives the leg downwards, setting the athlete up for an active landing (Fig D)

The Step Phase

Step

Coaching Points

  • The take-off leg is fully extended with the drive leg thigh just below parallel to the ground (Fig E)
  • The take-off leg stays extended behind the body with the heel held high (Fig F)
  • The drive leg thigh is held parallel with the ground, lower leg vertical and the toe dorsiflexed (Fig F)
  • The drive leg extends with a flexed ankle (creating a long lever) and snaps downward for a quick transition into the jump phase (Fig G)

The Jump Phase

Jump

Coaching Points

  • The take-off leg (the drive leg in the previous phases) is extended forcefully upon contact with the ground (Fig H)
  • The free-leg thigh driving to waist level (Fig H)
  • The arms drive forward and up - the torso should be held erect with the chin up and eyes looking beyond the pit - the legs move into a hang position with both thighs directly below the torso, legs bent at the knees - the arms are extended overhead to slow rotation with the hands reaching for the sky (Fig I)
  • The arms then drive forward - the legs swing forward - position held until the heels hit the sand when the knees collapse, the hips rise and the athlete slides through the sand (Fig J)

Arm Action

The use of a single or a double arm action at take off depends on the athlete's preference - the double arm action provides more power.

Single arm action

  • The arm opposite the free leg drives forward and up to shoulder level
  • The angle at the elbow should be between 80 and 110 degrees

Double arm action

  • The lead arm crosses slightly in front of the body on the penultimate step of the approach phase
  • As the take-off step is initiated, the arm pauses next to the body rather than swinging behind as with a normal stride
  • As the take-off foot contacts the ground, both arms drive forward and up to shoulder height
  • The angle of the arms at the elbows will be greater than 90 degrees in order to create a more powerful impulse forward

Foot Strike

Coaching Points

  • In an active landing the athlete's leg is extended, the ankle flexed and the leg pulled down forcefully striking the ground mid-foot
  • Upon contact the body rolls forward over the foot onto the toes while pushing off the ground

Jump Distribution

Aston Moore (BAF Junior event Coach, Triple Jump 1992) considers the appropriate distribution of the triple jump distance is as follows - Hop 35%, Step 30% and Jump 35%.

Jonathan Edward's World Record

Watch Jonathan Edwards in 1995 set a new world record of 18.16 metres for the triple jump and then in the next jump set a new world record, which still stands today, of 18.29 metres (Commentary in German). Jonathan has triple jumped 18.43 metres but is not in the record book because of a strong tailwind.

Ukraine's Inessa Kravets is the current women's world record holder with a jump of 15.50 metres in 1995. 

IAAF Men's Triple Jump World Record Progression

Distance Who When Where
18.29 metres Jonathan Edwards (GBR) 07 Aug 1995 Gothenburg
18.16 metres Jonathan Edwards (GBR) 07 Aug 1995 Gothenburg
17.98 metres Jonathan Edwards (GBR) 18 Jul 1995 Salamanca
17.97 metres Willie Banks (USA) 16 Jun 1985 Indianapolis
17.89 metres Joao Carlos de Oliveira (BRA) 15 Oct 1980 Mexico City
17.44 metres Viktor Sanyeyev (URS) 17 Oct 1972 Suchumi
17.40 metres Pedro Perez Duenas (CUB) 05 Aug 1971 Cali
17.39 metres Viktor Sanyeyev (URS) 17 Oct 1968 Mexico City
17.27 metres Nelson Prudencio (BRA) 17 Oct 1968 Mexico City
17.23 metres Viktor Sanyeyev (URS) 17 Oct 1968 Mexico City
17.22 metres Giuseppe Gentile (ITA) 17 Oct 1968 Mexico City
17.10 metres Giuseppe Gentile (ITA) 16 Oct 1968 Mexico City
17.03 metres Jozef Szmidt (POL) 05 Aug 1960 Olsztyn
16.70 metres Oleg Fedoseyev (URS) 03 May 1959 Nalchik
16.59 metres Oleg Rjahovsky (URS) 19 Jul 1958 Moscow
16.56 metres Adhemar Ferreira da Silva (BRA) 16 Mar 1955 Mexico City
16.23 metres Leonid Serbakov (URS) 19 Jul 1953 Moscow
16.22 metres Adhemar Ferreira da Silva (BRA) 23 Jul 1952 Helsinki
16.12 metres Adhemar Ferreira da Silva (BRA) 23 Jul 1952 Helsinki
16.01 metres Adhemar Ferreira da Silva (BRA) 30 Sep 1951 Rio de Janeiro
16.00 metres Adhemar Ferreira da Silva (BRA) 03 Dec 1950 Sao Paulo
16.00 metres Naoto Tajima (JPN) 06 Aug 1936 Berlin
15.78 metres John Metcalfe (AUS) 14 Dec 1935 Sydney
15.72 metres Chuhei Nambu (JPN) 04 Aug 1932 Los Angeles
15.58 metres Mikio Oda (JPN) 27 Oct 1931 Tokyo
15.52 metres Nick Winter (AUS) 12 Jul 1924 Paris
15.52 metres Dan Ahearn (USA) 30 May 1911 New York

Training Programs

A training program has to be developed to meet the individual needs of the athlete and take into consideration many factors: gender, age, strengths, weaknesses, objectives, training facilities etc. As all athletes have different needs a single program suitable for all athletes is not possible.

Training Pathway

Pyramid

Athletes in the Event Group stage

The following is a basic annual training program suitable for athletes in the Event Group development stage:

Athletes in the Event stage

The following is an example of a specific annual training programs suitable for athletes in the Event development stage:

Evaluation Tests

The following evaluation tests can be used to monitor the triple jump athlete's development:

Rules of Competition

The competition rules for this event can be obtained from:


Page Reference

The reference for this page is:

  • MACKENZIE, B. (2007) Triple Jump [WWW] Available from: http://www.brianmac.co.uk/triplejump/index.htm [Accessed

Related Pages

The following Sports Coach pages provide additional information on this topic:

Associated Books

The following books provide more information related to this topic:

  • How to Teach the Jumps, D. Johnson