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Ergogenic Aids

With better dope testing methods and hence the possibilities of detection and life ban from the sport, athletes and coaches are looking for legal ways to improve performance and/or hasten recovery. The various ways by which performance can be improved are known as Ergogenic Aids.

Ergogenic Aids may:

  • directly influence the physiological capacity of a particular body system thereby improving performance
  • remove psychological constraints which impact performance
  • increase the speed of recovery from training and competition


Ergogenic aids fall into the following categories:

  • Mechanical Aids
    • Altitude Training
    • Aqua (water) Training
    • Heart Rate Monitors
    • Computers - analyse VO2 max, technique, test results etc.
    • Video recorders - analyse technique
    • Tyre towing - develop strength
    • Weights - develop strength
    • Hypoxic Tents - altitude training
    • Nasal Strips
    • Parachutes - develop strength
    • Elastic cord (pulling)- develop speed
    • Elastic cord (restraining) - develop strength
    • Downhill running (3° to 5° slope) - develop speed
    • Uphill running (5° to 10° slope) - develop strength
    • Treadmills
    • Weighted vests (5% to 8% of body weight) - develop strength
    • Compression garments - limited research exists on the ergogenic qualities for sports-specific exercise, with available research showing mixed results for exercise involving repeated powerful efforts
    • Sports clothing, footwear and equipment
    • Timing equipment
    • Vibration Training

Banned Ergogenic Aids

The International Olympic Committee (IOC) has drawn up a list of banned substances and doping methods that most sports governing bodies have accepted. The use of drugs to enhance performance is considered unfair and it puts the health of the athlete at risk.

The Drug Information Database provides easily accessible and accurate responses to queries about the status in sport of licensed pharmaceutical and over-the-counter medicinal products available in the UK. The status of the substances in this database reflects the current prohibited list of supplements which is available from the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA).

To check your medication against the WADA prohibited list visit

Cautionary Notes

  • The IOC list of banned substances is based on Doping Classes and Doping Methods, not all substances belonging to the class are listed. Do not assume that because a substance is not listed it is not banned. Lists of banned substances are periodically revised. Always check with the medical officer of the sport or the Sports Council if you are in doubt. Athletes, this is your responsibility.
  • Different sporting organizations may ban different drugs. It is advisable to check with the relevant governing body. Medical officers should also liaise closely with their governing body regarding the relevant prohibited classes.
  • Banned substances are not only contained in medicines that may be prescribed by doctors. They may be found in over the counter preparations. A family doctor or local pharmacist may not be fully aware of the restrictions on medications. Always check medications with the governing body medical officer or with the Sports Council.
  • Do not use medications from overseas unless they have been cleared with the governing body medical officer. Do not rely on brand names of medications available overseas. A permitted brand name in the United Kingdom may contain a banned substance in its overseas version.
  • Some so-called 'vitamin' preparations and nutritional supplements may contain banned substances. Beware vitamin preparations which can be purchased here or overseas. There is no legal requirement for manufacturers to list all the contents of food supplements. Therefore, it is difficult to determine whether they would contravene the doping regulations as all ingredients may not be indicated, and indeed may vary from batch to batch.

If you are not sure, do not take it.

Related References

The following references provide additional information on this topic:

  • STRAUSS, R. H. (1984) Ergogenic Aids in Sports. JAMA, 252 (4), p. 555-555
  • COLEMAN, E. (1998) Ergogenic Aids for Athletes. Clinical Nutrition Insight, 24 (7), p. 1-4
  • SILVER, M. D. (2001) Use of ergogenic aids by athletes. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 9 (1), p. 61-70

Page Reference

The reference for this page is:

  • MACKENZIE, B. (2001) Ergogenic Aids [WWW] Available from: [Accessed

Related Pages

The following Sports Coach pages provide additional information on this topic: