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Sargent Jump Test

Testing and measurement are the means of collecting information upon which subsequent performance evaluations and decisions are made but in the analysis we need to bear in mind the factors that may influence the results.

The Sargent Jump Test (Sargent 1921)[7], also known as the vertical jump test, was developed by Dr. Dudley Allen Sargent (1849-1924).

Objective

To monitor the development of the athlete's elastic leg strength.

Required Resources

To undertake this test you will require:

  • Wall
  • Tape measure
  • Step Ladder
  • Chalk
  • Assistant

How to conduct the test

  • The athlete warms up for 10 minutes
  • The athlete chalks the end of his/her finger tips
  • The athlete stands side onto the wall, keeping both feet remaining on the ground, reaches up as high as possible with one hand and marks the wall with the tips of the fingers (M1)
  • The athlete from a static position jumps as high as possible and marks the wall with the chalk on his fingers (M2)
  • The assistant measures and records the distance between M1 and M2
  • The athlete repeats the test 3 times
  • The assistant calculates the average of the  recorded distances and uses this value  to assess the athlete’s performance
Start Mid End

Assessment

For an evaluation of the athlete's performance select the gender, enter the distance from M1 to M2 and then select the 'Calculate' button.

Gender Distance from M1 to M2 cm
 
Assessment -

Calculations are based on the normative data table[4]

Normative Data

The following normative data (Chu 1996)[4] has been obtained from the results of tests conducted with world class athletes.

% Rank Females Males
91-100 76.20 - 81.30 cm 86.35 - 91.45 cm
81 - 90 71.11 - 76.19 cm 81.30 - 86.34 cm
71 - 80 66.05 - 71.10 cm 76.20 - 81.29 cm
61 - 70 60.95 - 66.04 cm 71.10 - 76.19 cm
51 - 60 55.90 - 60.94 cm 66.05 - 71.09 cm
41 - 50 50.80 - 55.89 cm 60.95 - 66.04 cm
31 - 40 45.71 - 50.79 cm 55.90 - 60.94 cm
21 - 30 40.65 - 45.70 cm 50.80 - 55.89 cm
11 - 20 35.55 - 40.64 cm 45.70 - 50.79 cm
1 - 10 30.50 - 35.54 cm 40.65 - 45.69 cm

The following are national norms for 16 to 19 year olds (Davis 2000)[5]

Gender Excellent Above average Average Below average Poor
Male >65cm 50 - 65cm 40 - 49cm 30 - 39cm <30cm
Female >58cm 47 - 58cm 36 - 46cm 26 - 35cm <26cm

The following table is for 15 to 16 year olds (Beashel 1997)[8]

Gender Excellent Above average Average Below average Poor
Male >65cm 56 - 65cm 50 - 55cm 49 - 40cm <40cm
Female >60cm 51 - 60cm 41 - 50cm 35 - 40cm <35cm

The following table is for adult athletes (20+) (Arkinstall 2010)[9]

Gender Excellent Above average Average Below average Poor
Male >70cm 56 - 70cm 41 - 55cm 31 - 40cm <30cm
Female >60cm 46 - 60cm 31 - 45cm 21 - 30cm <20cm

Power Score

A heavier person jumping the same height as a lighter person has to do more work as they have a larger mass to move. It is sometimes useful to convert the vertical jump height to units of power. Power cannot be calculated (Power = Work ÷ Time) since the Time the force is acted on the body is unknown. Formulas have been developed that estimate power from vertical jump measurements. In these formulas mass = body weight and VJ = Vertical Jump height.

Lewis Formula

The Lewis formula (Fox & Mathews, 1974)[6] estimates average power.

  • Average Power (Watts) = √4.9 x mass (kg) x √VJ (m) x 9.81

Sayers Formula

The Sayers Equation (Sayers et al. 1999)[3] estimates peak power output.

  • Peak power (W) = 60.7 x VJ (cm) + 45.3 x mass(kg) - 2055

Harman Formula

Harman et al. (1991)[1] established equations for peak and average power.

  • Peak power (W) = 61.9 x VJ (cm) + 36.0 x mass (kg) + 1822
  • Average power (W) = 21.2 x VJ (cm) + 23.0 x mass (kg) – 1393

Johnson & Bahamonde Formula

Johnson and Bahamonde (1996)[2] established equations for peak and average power.

  • Peak power (W) = 78.5 x VJ (cm) + 60.6 x mass (kg) -15.3 x height (cm) -1308
  • Average power (W) = 41.4 x VJ (cm) + 31.2 x mass (kg) -13.9 x height (cm) + 431

Power Assessment

For an evaluation of the athlete's power, using the above formulas, enter the athlete's Body Mass (weight), Height, Vertical Jump Height and then select the 'Calculate' button.

Body Mass kg
Height cm
Vertical Jump Height cm
 
 
Lewis - Average Power Watts
Sayers - Peak Power Watts
Harman - Peak Power Watts
Harman - Average Power Watts
Johnson - Peak Power Watts
Johnson - Average Power Watts

Analysis

Analysis of the test result is by comparing it with the athlete's previous results for this test. It is expected that, with appropriate training between each test, the analysis would indicate an improvement in the athlete's leg strength.

Target Group

This test is suitable for active individuals but not for those where the test would be contraindicated.

Reliability

Test reliability refers to the degree to which a test is consistent and stable in measuring what it is intended to measure. Reliability will depend upon how strict the test is conducted and the individual's level of motivation to perform the test. The following link provides a variety of factors that may influence the results and therefore the test reliability.

Validity

Test validity refers to the degree to which the test actually measures what it claims to measure and the extent to which inferences, conclusions, and decisions made on the basis of test scores are appropriate and meaningful. This test provides a means to monitor the effect of training on the athlete's physical development.

Advantages

  • Minimal equipment required
  • Simple to set up and conduct
  • The test can be administered by the athlete
  • Can be conducted almost anywhere

Disadvantages

  • Specific facilities required
  • Assistant required to administer the test


References

  1. HARMAN, E.A. et al. (1991). Estimation of Human Power Output From Vertical Jump. Journal of Applied Sport Science Research, 5(3), p. 116-120
  2. JOHSON, D. L. and Bahamonde, R. (1996) Power Output Estimate in University Athletes. Journal of strength and Conditioning Research, 10(3), p. 161-166
  3. SAYERS, S. et al. (1999) Cross-validation of three jump power equations. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 31, p. 572
  4. CHU, D.A. (1996) Explosive Power and Strength. Champaign: Human Kinetics
  5. DAVIS, B. et al. (2000) Physical Education and the study of sport. 4th ed. Spain: Harcourt. p. 123
  6. FOX, E.L. and MATHEWS, D.K. (1974) The interval training: conditioning for sports and general fitness. Philadelphia PA: Saunders. p. 257-258
  7. SARGENT, D.A. (1921) The Physical Test of a Man. American Physical Education Review, 26, p. 188-194
  8. BEASHEL,P. and TAYLOR, J. (1997) The World of Sport Examined. Croatia: Thomas Nelson and Sons. p. 57
  9. ARKINSTALL, M et al. (2010) VCE Physical Education 2. Malaysia: Macmillian. p.248

Related References

The following references provide additional information on this topic:

  • BUI, H. T. et al. (2014) Comparison and analysis of three different methods to evaluate vertical jump height. Clinical physiology and functional imaging.
  • ROUIS, M. et al. (2014) Relationship between vertical jump and maximal power output of legs and arms: Effects of ethnicity and sport. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports
  • DE SALLES, P. et al. (2012) Validity and Reproducibility of the Sargent Jump Test in the Assessment of Explosive Strength in Soccer Players. Journal of human kinetics, 33, p. 115-121

Page Reference

The reference for this page is:

  • MACKENZIE, B. (2007) Sargent Jump Test [WWW] Available from: http://www.brianmac.co.uk/sgtjump.htm [Accessed

Related Pages

The following Sports Coach pages provide additional information on this topic: