Sargent Jump Test
Testing and measurement are the means of collecting information
upon which subsequent performance evaluations and
decisions are made but in the analysis we need to bear in mind the factors that may influence the results.
The Sargent Jump Test (Sargent 1921)^{[7]}, also known as the vertical jump test, was developed by Dr. Dudley Allen Sargent (18491924).
Objective
To monitor the development of the athlete's elastic leg
strength.
Required Resources
To undertake this test you will require:
 Wall
 Tape measure
 Step Ladder
 Chalk
 Assistant
How to conduct the test
 The athlete warms up for 10 minutes
 The athlete chalks the end of his/her finger tips
 The athlete stands side onto the wall, keeping both feet remaining on the ground, reaches up as high as possible with one hand and marks the wall with the tips of the fingers (M1)
 The athlete from a static position jumps as high as possible and marks the wall with the chalk on his fingers (M2)
 The assistant measures and records the distance between M1 and M2
 The athlete repeats the test 3 times
 The assistant calculates the average of the recorded distances and uses this value to assess the athlete’s performance
Assessment
The following normative data is available for this test.
The following normative data, adapted from Chu (1996)^{[4]}, is for world class athletes.
Gender 
Excellent 
Above average 
Average 
Below average 
Poor 
Male 
>81.3 
71.0  81.3 
60.9  70.9 
50.8  60.8 
<50.8 
Female 
>71.1 
60.9  71.1 
50.8  60.8 
40.6  50.7 
<40.6 
The following are national norms for 16 to 19 year olds (Davis 2000)^{[5]}
Gender 
Excellent 
Above average 
Average 
Below average 
Poor 
Male 
>65cm 
50  65cm 
40  49cm 
30  39cm 
<30cm 
Female 
>58cm 
47  58cm 
36  46cm 
26  35cm 
<26cm 
The following table is for 15 to 16 year olds (Beashel 1997)^{[8]}
Gender 
Excellent 
Above average 
Average 
Below average 
Poor 
Male 
>65cm 
56  65cm 
50  55cm 
49  40cm 
<40cm 
Female 
>60cm 
51  60cm 
41  50cm 
35  40cm 
<35cm 
The following table is for adult athletes (20+) (Arkinstall 2010)^{[9]}
Gender 
Excellent 
Above Average 
Average 
Below Average 
Poor 
Male 
>70cm 
56  70cm 
41  55cm 
31  40cm 
<30cm 
Female 
>60cm 
46  60cm 
31  45cm 
21  30cm 
<20cm 
Power Score
A heavier person jumping the same height as a lighter person has to do more work as they have a larger mass to move. It is sometimes useful to convert the vertical jump height to units of power. Power cannot be calculated (Power = Work ÷ Time) since the Time the force is acted on the body is unknown. Formulas have been developed that estimate power from vertical jump measurements. In these formulas mass = body weight and VJ = Vertical Jump height.
Lewis Formula
The Lewis formula (Fox & Mathews, 1974)^{[6]} estimates average power.
 Average Power (Watts) = √4.9 x mass (kg) x √VJ (m) x 9.81
Sayers Formula
The Sayers Equation (Sayers et al. 1999)^{[3]} estimates peak power output.
 Peak power (W) = 60.7 x VJ (cm) + 45.3 x mass(kg)  2055
Harman Formula
Harman et al. (1991)^{[1]} established equations for peak and average power.
 Peak power (W) = 61.9 x VJ (cm) + 36.0 x mass (kg) + 1822
 Average power (W) = 21.2 x VJ (cm) + 23.0 x mass (kg) – 1393
Johnson & Bahamonde Formula
Johnson and Bahamonde (1996)^{[2]} established equations for peak and average power.
 Peak power (W) = 78.5 x VJ (cm) + 60.6 x mass (kg) 15.3 x height (cm) 1308
 Average power (W) = 41.4 x VJ (cm) + 31.2 x mass (kg) 13.9 x height (cm) + 431
Analysis
Analysis of the test result is by comparing it with the athlete's previous results for this test. It is expected that, with appropriate training between each test, the analysis would indicate an improvement in the athlete's leg strength.
Target Group
This test is suitable for active individuals but not for those
where the test would be contraindicated.
Reliability
Test reliability refers to the degree to which a test is consistent and stable in measuring what it is intended to measure. Reliability will depend upon how strict the test is conducted and the individual's level of motivation to perform the test. The following link provides a variety of factors that may influence the results and therefore the test reliability.
Validity
Test validity refers to the degree to which the test actually measures what it claims to measure and the extent to which inferences, conclusions, and decisions made on the basis of test scores are appropriate and meaningful. This test provides a means to monitor the effect of training on the athlete's physical development.
Advantages
 Minimal equipment required
 Simple to set up and conduct
 The test can be administered by the athlete
 Can be conducted almost anywhere
Disadvantages
 Specific facilities required
 Assistant required to administer the test
References
 HARMAN, E.A. et al.
(1991). Estimation of Human Power Output From Vertical Jump. Journal of Applied Sport Science Research, 5(3), p. 116120
 JOHSON, D. L. and Bahamonde, R. (1996) Power Output Estimate in University Athletes. Journal of strength and Conditioning Research, 10(3), p. 161166
 SAYERS, S. et al. (1999) Crossvalidation of three jump power equations. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 31, p. 572
 CHU, D.A. (1996) Explosive Power and Strength. Champaign: Human Kinetics
 DAVIS, B. et al. (2000) Physical Education and the study of sport. 4th ed. Spain: Harcourt. p. 123
 FOX, E.L. and MATHEWS, D.K. (1974) The interval training: conditioning for sports and general fitness. Philadelphia PA: Saunders. p. 257258
 SARGENT, D.A. (1921) The Physical Test of a Man. American Physical Education
Review, 26, p. 188194
 BEASHEL,P. and TAYLOR, J. (1997) The World of Sport Examined. Croatia: Thomas Nelson and Sons. p. 57
 ARKINSTALL, M et al. (2010) VCE Physical Education 2. Malaysia: Macmillian. p.248
Related References
The following references provide additional information on this topic:
 BUI, H. T. et al. (2014) Comparison and analysis of three different methods to evaluate vertical jump height. Clinical physiology and functional imaging.
 ROUIS, M. et al. (2014) Relationship between vertical jump and maximal power output of legs and arms: Effects of ethnicity and sport. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports
 DE SALLES, P. et al. (2012) Validity and Reproducibility of the Sargent Jump Test in the Assessment of Explosive Strength in Soccer Players. Journal of human kinetics, 33, p. 115121
Page Reference
The reference for this page is:
 MACKENZIE, B. (2007) Sargent Jump Test [WWW] Available from: http://www.brianmac.co.uk/sgtjump.htm [Accessed
Related Pages
The following Sports Coach pages provide additional information on this topic:
