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The following is a cross-reference of the AQA GCE AS and A level Physical Education course (June 2014 onwards)[1] and the location of related information on the Sports Coach website. The links indicate the page where you will find the information -you may have to search that page to find the specific topic.

Unit 2 PHED2 Analysis and evaluation of physical activity as a performer and in an adopted role/s

Section B - Application of theoretical knowledge for effective performance

Applied Exercise Physiology in practical situations  
Principles of training – concepts of specificity, progression, over-training, overload, reversibility and tedium, FITT principles Training Principles
FITT Principles
Calculating working intensities for optimal gains through heart rate and Borg scale, weights – one rep max Heart Rate
Maximum Heart Rate
Borg Scale
One Rep Max
Fitness testing – reasons for testing, principles of maximal and sub-maximal tests, limitations of testing, specific test protocols, issues relating to validity and reliability Performance Evaluation
The physiological and psychological value of a Warm-up and cool-down; types of stretching exercises, active, passive, static and ballistic; principles of safe practice Warm-up & cool-down
Types of Stretching
Static Stretching Exercises
Dynamic Stretching Exercises
Training methods – continuous, intermittent, circuit, weights, plyometrics and mobility training; explanation of the principles of each method, specific examples, advantages and disadvantages. Interval & Continuous Training
Circuit Training
Weight Training
Skill Acquisition in practical situations
Factors to consider when developing skills and planning training/coaching sessions Skill Classification
Skill Development
Skill, Technique and Ability
Planning the Training
Personal Exercise Plan
Teaching styles – command, reciprocal, discovery and problem solving Teaching Styles
Methods of presenting practice – whole, progressive part and whole-part-whole Methods of Practice
Types of practice – massed, distributed, variable and mental practice Types of Practice
Methods of guidance – verbal, visual, manual and mechanical Methods of Guidance
Feedback – types of feedback, Knowledge of Performance, Knowledge of Results, terminal, concurrent, delayed, positive and negative, intrinsic, extrinsic. Feedback

Unit 3 PHED3 Optimising performance and evaluating contemporary issues within sport

Section A - Applied physiology to optimise performance

Aerobic energy system  
Simplified biochemistry in the breakdown, release and regeneration of ATP in glycolysis, the Kreb cycle and Electron transport chain, the role of mitochondria, use in sporting situations ATP
Electron Transport
Kreb Cycle
Oxygen deficit, Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption, including fast and slow components of the recovery process Oxygen deficit
VO2 max-limiting factor to performance VO2 max
Anaerobic energy systems
Simplified biochemistry in the anaerobic lactate system – use in sporting situations Exercise Intensity and Energy Source
Lactate threshold/Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation (OBLA) and fatigue; relationship with VO2 max OBLA
Lactate Threshold
VO2 max
ATP-PC energy system – used in sporting situations. Energy Systems
Structure and function Muscle Types
Characteristics of different fibre types (slow-twitch (type I), fast glycolytic (type IIb) and fast oxidative glycolytic (type IIa)) and examples in sport Muscle Types 
Sliding filament hypothesis Muscle Movement
Motor units; spatial summation Speed Training
Preparation and training
The role and effectiveness of creatine, protein supplements, herbal remedies, bicarbonate of soda and caffeine Creatine
Sodium Bicarbonate
Water and electrolyte balance; the athlete's diet Sports Drinks
Achieving optimal weight for activities Weight Management
Ideal Weight
Effects of ergogenic aids, EPO, anabolic steroids, Human Growth Hormone and beta-blockers. Supplements
Ergogenic Aids
Specialised training
Plyometrics Plyometrics
PNF stretching PNF
Altitude training Altitude
Glycogen loading Carbohydrate Loading
Periodisation Planning 
Thermoregulation in differing environments Environmental Effects
Lactate sampling, respiratory exchange ratio (RER) Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER)
Sports injuries
Prevention and rehabilitation – use and effect of hyperbaric chambers, oxygen tents and ice baths on recovery

Injury Prevention
Hot & Cold Contrast Baths
Oxygen Tent

Delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) DOMS
Mechanics of movement
Vectors and scalars – velocity, acceleration and momentum /impulse in sprinting Biomechanics
Newton's Laws applied to movements– application of forces in sporting activities Biomechanics
Projectile motion – factors affecting distance, vector components of parabolic flight Biomechanics
Factors affecting distance
Angular motion – conservation of angular momentum during flight, the moment of inertia and its relationship with angular velocity Biomechanics

Section B - Psychological aspects that optimise performance

Aspects of personality  
Definition of personality
Interactionalist perspective
Personality as a predictor of performance
Use of personality testing
Profile of mood states (POMs) POMS
Achievement motivation – motives to achieve
(Nach) and avoid failure (Naf), and the characteristics of each
Incentive value and the probability of success
Development of approach and avoidance behaviour.
Drive, inverted U and catastrophe theories Inverted U
Catastrophe Theory
Practical applications and impact on performance Competitive Anxiety
Zone of Optimal Functioning and peak flow experience
Controlling anxiety
Different types of anxiety – somatic; cognitive, trait and state Types of anxiety
Measuring anxiety – Observations; questionnaires; SCAT, STA1, CSAI 2, physiological measures SCAT
Cognitive techniques – imagery, mental rehearsal and stress management, attentional control and cue utilisation, thought stopping, self-talk Imagery skills
Self Hypnosis
Stress Management
Self Confidence
Somatic techniques – biofeedback, centring, breathing control and muscle relaxation

Breathing control
Relaxation Techniques

Goal-setting – characteristics of effective goal setting. Goal Setting
Definitions and components of an attitude
Influences on the formation of an attitude and behaviour
Changing attitudes through cognitive dissonance and persuasive communication
Definitions and types – channelled and instrumental aggression, the difference between aggression and assertion
Theories of aggression – instinct theory, learning theory and aggressive cue theory
Strategies to control aggression.
Self-confidence and self-efficacy – Bandura's model – determinants and changes in self-efficacy Self Confidence
Bandura's Model
Social facilitation and inhibition
Evaluation apprehension, Baron's distraction conflict theory, home-field advantage
Strategies to eliminate the adverse effects of all the above on performance
Attribution theory
Weiner's model and its application to sporting situations
The link between attribution and task persistence
Attribution retraining, self-serving bias
Learned helplessness, general and specific
Group success
Group formation and dynamics, Carron's antecedents Group Dynamics
Factors affecting cohesion – co-operation and coordination Group Dynamics
Task and social cohesion Group Dynamics
Steiner's model of potential and actual productivity, faulty group processes, strategies to overcome faulty processes
Ringlemann effect and social loafing – strategies to overcome social loafing Group Dynamics
Qualities associated with leaders Leadership
Types of leadership – autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire Leadership Styles
The effectiveness of leadership styles Leadership Styles
Prescribed and emergent leaders
Fiedler's Contingency model – task and person orientated and Chelladurai's multi-dimensional model.


  1. AQA (2014) GCE AS and A Level specification Physical Education, Version1.6

Page Reference

If you quote information from this page in your work, then the reference for this page is:

  • MACKENZIE, B. (2007) AQA GCE AS & A Level PE [WWW] Available from: [Accessed