During the process of digestion, the proteins in our food are broken down into their constituent amino acids that are in turn absorbed by the blood capillaries and transported to the liver. The amino acids are then synthesized into proteins or stored as fat or glycogen for energy. Each gram of protein produces approximately 4 Calories. Many proteins function as enzymes and others:
Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. The formation of protein can result in dehydration because water molecules are lost as amino acids combine to form more complex molecules.
The body requires 20 different amino acids of which 8 are referred to as essential amino acids which cannot be synthesized by the human body. Animals and plants manufacture proteins that contain these essential amino acids. Non-essential amino acids can be synthesized by body, but this does not mean they are unimportant, they are, it is just that the body is capable of producing sufficient to meet the demands for growth and tissue repair. It is therefore important that our diet contain appropriate levels of protein.
The essential Amino Acids (Bean 1993) are: lsoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylaianine, Threonine, Tryptophan and Valine.
The non-essential Amino Acids (Bean 1993) are: Alanine, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartic acid, Cysteine, Clutamic acid, Clutamine, Glycine, Histidine*, Proline, Serine and Tyrosine.
* Histidine is essential for babies but not for adults.
Recommended Protein Intake
Despite the beliefs of many coaches and athletes, eating excessive protein provides little benefit. Muscle mass does not increase simply by eating high protein foods. Protein intake significantly above the recommended values can prove harmful because excessive protein breakdown strains the liver and kidney functions through the production and elimination of urea and other solutes.
The recommended daily allowance for men and women (McArdle et al. 2000):
Training and Protein Needs
Research suggests that protein breakdown increases during and immediately after exercise, and that protein manufacture slows down at the same time. The more intense the exercise, the greater your protein breakdown will be, and the greater your needs will become. If you train to increase muscle mass, your protein needs will be greater still. Extra protein will be needed not only to compensate for protein breakdown but also for new protein to be made and for muscle growth. It is important to realise that a high-protein diet alone will not lead to any increase in strength or muscle size. It is only when it is combined with heavy resistance exercise that additional protein can cause this to happen.
Research over the past 10 years has indicated that athletes engaged in intense training need to ingest 1.5 to 2 times the recommended intake in order to maintain a positive protein balance. Bear in mind that excess protein is converted to fat and stored.
Optimum Protein Nutrition
There is more to protein nutrition than just eating the optimum amount; the timing of consumption and the type of protein selected can both impact on nitrogen balance; and there are a number of nutritional 'co-factors' that are either essential or useful in promoting optimum protein metabolism within the body. This is especially true where carbohydrate is concerned, because building or even maintaining lean tissue mass is an 'energy-intensive' process.
Increasing protein intake at the expense of carbohydrate can be a bad strategy for athletes engaged in heavy training, because without sufficient carbohydrate the body simply switches to other fuels for energy, and amino acids from protein (particularly the branched chain amino acids, leucine, isoleucine and valine) provide a ready source of energy!
Muscle tissue is a relatively rich source of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), and tends to undergo breakdown during periods of high-energy demand, when carbohydrate and/or the amino acid pool becomes depleted. Furthermore, carbohydrates stimulate the release of insulin, a highly anabolic hormone, which helps to drive both glucose and amino acids into muscle cells. Any athlete seeking to optimise his or her protein metabolism should therefore ensure a carbohydrate intake commensurate with training volume.
The following are some steps you can take to optimise your protein nutrition:
Source of Protein
Proteins that contain all the essential amino acids in approximately the right proportions for your body's requirements are sometimes called 'high-biological-value' proteins. These are found in foods that are derived from animals: meat, fish, eggs, milk and dairy products
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