Exercise and Pregnancy
Based on scientific research in this area it is considered safe to
continue physical exercise during pregnancy provided women are aware of the
potential dangers from their sport and of the possible contraindications (Hartman and Bung 1999).
It is generally the type of exercise and not the length of time
pregnant women participate in their sport that is a problem. Activities
considered advisable are jogging, swimming, cycling, golf and walking although
they are not without risk. Contact sports (e.g. hockey, football, boxing etc.)
or sports where injury is a high risk (e.g. horseback riding, skiing, ice
skating etc.) should be avoided.
In 1985, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
developed a set of guidelines for women
who plan to exercise during their pregnancy (ACOG 1992).
- During pregnancy, women can continue to exercise and derive
health benefits even from mild-to-moderate exercise routines. Regular exercise
(at least three times per week) is preferable to intermittent activity
- Women should avoid exercise in the supine position after the
first trimester. Such a position is associated with decreased cardiac output in
most pregnant women; because the remaining cardiac output will be
preferentially distributed away from splanchnic beds (including the uterus)
during vigorous exercise. Such regimens are best avoided during pregnancy.
Prolonged periods of motionless standing should also be avoided
- Women should be aware of the decreased oxygen available for
aerobic exercise during pregnancy. They should be encouraged to modify the
intensity of their exercise according to maternal symptoms. Pregnant women
should stop exercising when fatigued and not exercise to exhaustion.
- Weight-bearing exercises may be continued at intensities
similar to those prior to pregnancy throughout pregnancy. Non-weight-bearing
exercises may be continued at intensities similar to those prior to pregnancy
throughout pregnancy. Non-weight-bearing exercises such as cycling or swimming
will minimise the risk of injury and facilitate the continuation of exercise
- Morphologic changes in pregnancy should serve as a relative
contraindication to types of exercise in which loss of balance could be
detrimental to maternal or fetal well-being, especially in the third trimester.
Furthermore, any type of exercise involving the potential for even mild
abdominal trauma should be avoided
- Pregnancy requires an additional 300 Calories per day in order to
maintain metabolic homeostasis. Thus, women who exercise during pregnancy
should be particularly careful to ensure an adequate diet
- Pregnant women who exercise in the first trimester should
augment heat dissipation by ensuring adequate hydration, appropriate clothing
and optimal environmental surroundings during exercise
- Many of the physiological and morphological changes of
pregnancy may persist four to six weeks postpartum.
- Pre-pregnancy exercise routines should be resumed gradually
based on a woman's physical capability
Exercise following delivery
Gradual but regular exercise, three times a week, may start soon
after delivery but it is recommend that ballistic movement, extreme stretching,
heavy weight lifting and weight resistant machines should be avoided for up to
three months. It is recommended you seek advice from your doctor before
commencing on an exercise program.
- HARTMAN, S. and BUNG, P (1999) Physical exercise during pregnancy - physiological considerations and recommendations. Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 27 (3), p. 204-215
- American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (1992)
Women and Exercise. In: ACOG Technical Bulletin Number 173. Washington, DC: The American College of Obstetricians and
The following references provide additional information on this topic:
- LEWIS, E. (2014) Exercise in pregnancy. Australian family physician, 43 (8), p. 541
- HORAK, T. A. and OSMAN, A. (2013) Exercise in pregnancy. In Obstetrics and Gynaecology Forum, 22 (4), p. 13-16
- NAGRATH, A. and SINGH, M. (2012) Exercise during Pregnancy. Progress in Obs and Gyne, 96
If you quote information from this page in your work, then the reference for this page is:
- MACKENZIE, B. (2006) Exercise and pregnancy [WWW] Available from: https://www.brianmac.co.uk/pregnancy.htm [Accessed
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