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# Margaria Kalamen Power Test

Testing and measurement are the means of collecting information upon which subsequent performance evaluations and decisions are made but, in the analysis, we need to bear in mind the factors that may influence the results.

### Objective

The objective of this test (Margaria 1996 & Kalaman 1968)[1,2] is to monitor the development of the athlete's strength and speed (power).

### Required Resources

To undertake this test, you will require:

• Stopwatch
• Assistant
• Flight of 12 steps about 17.5 cm high
• Weighing Scales

### How to conduct the test

The test requires the athlete to sprint up a set of steps.

• The athlete warms up for 10 minutes
• The assistant marks a starting line with cones 6 metres in front of the first step
• The assistant places a cone on and to one side of the 3rd, 6th and 9th steps
• The assistant measures the vertical distance from the 3rd to the 9th step (metres)
• The assistant weighs the athlete (kg)
• The athlete starts at the 6-metre line
• The assistant gives the command "GO"
• The athlete sprints to the steps and up the flight of steps taking three steps at a time landing on the 3rd, 6th and 9th steps
• The assistant starts the stopwatch when the athlete's foot lands on the 3rd step
• The assistant stops the stopwatch when the athlete's foot lands on the 9th step and records the time

#### Assessment

I have not been able to locate any normative data for this test.

For an assessment of the athlete's power, enter their weight, the height from the 3rd to the 9th step, their time to complete the test and then select the 'Calculate' button.

 Weight kg Height metres Time seconds Power = watts

Power (Watts) is calculated from the formula:

• P = (M x D) x 9.8 ÷ t where

P = Power (Watts)
M = Athlete's weight (kg)
D = Vertical distance (m) - 3rd to 9th step
t = Time (s)

### Analysis

Analysis of the test result is by comparing it with the athlete's previous results for this test. It is expected that, with appropriate training between each test, the analysis would indicate an improvement in the athlete's speed and strength (power).

### Target Group

This test is suitable for active athletes but not for individuals where the test would be contraindicated.

### Reliability

Test reliability refers to the degree to which a test is consistent and stable in measuring what it is intended to measure. Reliability will depend upon how strict the test is conducted and the individual's level of motivation to perform the test. The following link provides a variety of factors that may influence the results and therefore the test reliability.

### Validity

Test validity refers to the degree to which the test actually measures what it claims to measure and the extent to which inferences, conclusions, and decisions made on the basis of test scores are appropriate and meaningful. This test provides a means to monitor the effect of training on the athlete's physical development.

• Minimal equipment required
• Simple to set up and conduct

• Specific facilities required - steps
• Assistant required to administer the test

### References

1. MARGARIA, R. et al. (1996) Measurement of muscular power (anaerobic) in man. J. Appl. Physiol, 21, p. 1662-1664
2. KALAMEN, J. (1968) Measurement of maximum muscle power in man. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus.

### Related References

The following references provide additional information on this topic:

• HETZLER, R. K. et al. (2010) Development of a Modified Margaria-Kalamen Anaerobic Power Test for American Football Athletes. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research24 (4), p. 978-984
• HAN, G. et al. (2011) Effects of Dynamic Stretch Training on Lower Extremity Power Performance of Young Sprinters. Journal of Physical Therapy Science23 (3), p. 401-404