We use the term fatigue to describe a general feeling of the overall effects of an exercise on the body or the inability to continue with an exercise. So what causes this sensation of fatigue? The reason has to do with several factors, including fuel availability and the mechanism of hydrogen ions and calcium in muscle cell action.
Muscles require ATP (adenosine triphosphate) as an energy source. We rely on the anaerobic pathway during intense activity, but this has a limited store (ATP/CP pathway approximately 10 seconds and the Anaerobic Lactic pathway about 2 minutes). The aerobic pathway produces ATP copiously (with the breakdown of glucose and glycogen) and requires oxygen, carried by the blood, to support the process. The cardiovascular system is limited in delivering blood and oxygen to the working muscles.
The breakdown of glucose or glycogen produces lactate and hydrogen ions (H+). If insufficient oxygen is available to the working muscles, then hydrogen ion concentrations increase, and the blood and muscle become acidic. This acidic environment starts to block the nerve signals from the brain to muscle fibres, so the legs begin to feel heavy, and we slow down to allow more oxygen to get to the working muscles.
One of the functions of calcium is to help control muscle contractions. Researchers at the Columbia University Medical Centre, Bellinger et al. (2008), conducted a study which found that muscle fatigue after long, intense exercise may be caused by tiny leaks of calcium inside muscle cells. The researchers found that after extended high-intensity exercise, 3 hours of cycling by experienced cyclists, small channels in the athlete's muscle cells were leaking calcium. This calcium leak weakens muscle contraction and stimulates an enzyme that attacks muscle fibres resulting in muscle fatigue. These calcium leaks stopped after a few days' rests.
Fibromyalgia is pain and stiffness in the muscles, ligaments and tendons, affecting one part of the body or several different areas such as the limbs, neck and back. You will have a higher risk of developing fibromyalgia if one of your parents or siblings has the condition. It is thought fibromyalgia is caused by genetic and environmental factors that work together.
Some of the symptoms are fatigue and exhaustion, sleep disturbance, aching and stiffness, headaches, concentration problems and irritable bowels. These symptoms can make it hard to carry out simple everyday tasks which can then make you feel frustrated and depressed.
There appears to be no simple cure for fibromyalgia, but there are ways of managing your symptoms. Aerobic exercises, such as swimming and walking, will reduce pain and fatigue, helping you sleep and feel better.
For more information, visit the UK Fibromyalgia Association.
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