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# Predicting Body Fat from Girth

Measuring body fat percentage is an easy method of discovering correct body weight and composition. Beneath the skin is a layer of subcutaneous fat, and the percentage of total body fat can be measured by taking the girth measurements at selected points on the body with a measuring tape.

### Measurement Sites

Depending on your age and gender, three body measurements can determine your body fat percentage.

 Age (years) Gender Site A Site B Site C 18 - 26 Male Right Upper Arm Abdomen Right Forearm Female Abdomen Right Thigh Right Forearm 27 - 50 Male Hips Abdomen Right Forearm Female Abdomen Right Thigh Right Calf

The measurement sites are as follows:

 A - Upper Arm B - Forearm c - Abdomen D - Hips E - Thigh F - Calf

### Method

The method is as follows:

• Based on your age range and gender determine the required three measurement sites from the table above
• Record the measurements in centimetres of these three sites (A, B, C)
• Use the calculator below to determine your percentage body fat

### Assessment

To obtain an estimate of the percentage body fat, please enter your age range, gender, three site measurements (in the correct order A, B, C) and then select the 'Calculate' button.

 Age - 18-26 27-50 Gender - Male Female Site A = cm Site B = cm Site C = cm Estimated body fat is % (± 2.5%)

The calculations are based on McArdle et al. (2000)[2]

### Reliability

Reliability would depend upon how strict the test is conducted and the individual's level of motivation to perform the test.

### Validity

It is not a good predictor of the percentage of body fat but can be used to indicate body composition changes over time.

### Typical Scores

The average man has 15 to 17% body fat, while the average woman is between 18 and 22%. Typical scores for elite athletes (Wilmore 1994)[1] are 6% to 12% for men and 12% to 20% for women. The following table details the percentage of body fat for male and female athletes for various sports.

 Sport Male Female Baseball 12-16% 12-19% Basketball 6-12% 20-28% Canoeing 6-12% 10-16% Cycling 5-14% 15-20% Field Hockey 8-14% 12-18% Gymnastics 5-13% 10-16% Rowing 6-14% 12-19% Swimming 9-13% 14-24% Tennis 12-15% 16-24% Track - Jumpers 7-11% 10-18% Track - Runners 8-10% 12-19% Track - Throwers 14-20% 20-27% Triathlon 5-11% 10-15% Volleyball 11-14% 16-24%

### References

1. WILMORE, J.H. and COSTILL, D.L. (1994) Physiology of sport and exercise. Human Kinetics, Champaign, Illinois
2. McARDLE, W.D. et al. (2000) Essentials of Exercise Physiology, 2nd ed. Lippincott: Williams & Wilkin, Appendix F