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Astrand Treadmill Test

Testing and measurement are the means of collecting information upon which subsequent performance evaluations and decisions are made. In the analysis, we need to consider the factors influencing the results.


The objective of the Astrand Treadmill Test (Astrand 1952)[2] is to monitor the development of the athlete's general endurance (VO2 max).

Required Resources

To conduct this test, you will require:

  • Treadmill
  • Stopwatch
  • Assistant

How to conduct the test

This test requires the athlete to run as long as possible on a treadmill whose slope increments at timed intervals

  • The athlete warms up for 10 minutes
  • The assistant sets up the treadmill with a speed of 8.05km/hr (5 mph) and an incline of 0%
  • The assistant gives the command “GO”, starts the stopwatch, and the athlete commences the test
  • The assistant, after 3 minutes into the test, adjusts the treadmill incline to 2.5% and then every 2 minutes after that, increases the incline by 2.5%
  • The assistant stops the stopwatch and records the time when the athlete is unable to continue


I have been unable to locate any normative data for this test.

From the total running time, an estimate of the athlete's VO2 max can be calculated as follows:

  • VO2 max = (Time × 1.444) + 14.99

"Time" is the recorded test time expressed in minutes and fractions of a minute.


The athlete stopped the test after 13 minutes and 15 seconds of running (13.25 minutes).

  • VO2 max = (13.25 × 1.444) + 14.99
  • VO2 max = 34.123 mls/kg/min

To estimate your VO2 max, enter the duration of the run and then select the 'Calculate' button.

Time mins secs     VO2 max mls/kg/min

To analysis of your VO2 max score, go to the VO2 max page.


Analysis of the test result is done by comparing it with the athlete's previous results for this test. With appropriate training between each test, it is expected that the analysis would indicate an improvement in the athlete's VO2 max.

Target Group

This test is suitable for endurance athletes and players of endurance sports (e.g. football, rugby) but not for individuals where the test would be contraindicated.


Test reliability refers to how a test is consistent and stable in measuring what it is intended to measure. Reliability will depend upon how strict the test is conducted and the individual's level of motivation to perform the test.


Test validity refers to the degree to which the test measures what it claims to measure and the extent to which inferences, conclusions, and decisions based on test scores are appropriate and meaningful. This test provides a means to monitor the effect of training on the athlete's physical development. Noakesa (1990)[1] found a high correlation between the test results and running performance. There are published VO2 max tables, and the correlation to the actual VO2 max is high. To assess your VO2 max, check out the VO2 max normative data tables.


  • Minimal equipment required
  • Simple to set up and conduct


  • Specialist equipment required
  • Assistant required to administer the test

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  1. NOAKESA, T.D. and MYBURGHA, K.H. and SCHALLl, R. (1990) Peak treadmill running velocity during the VO2 max test predicts running performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, 8 (1), p. 35-45
  2. Astrand, P. (1952) Experimental studies of physical working capacity in relation to sex and age. Munksgaard, Copenhagen.

Page Reference

If you quote information from this page in your work, then the reference for this page is:

  • MACKENZIE, B. (2002) Astrand Treadmill Test [WWW] Available from: [Accessed