Sports Coach Logo Sports Coach Training Principles Fitness Components


Why do rugby players scrum and maul at such different body heights?

Bruce Ross explains the benefits of developing the maul technique.

Scrums and mauls are the two great dominance contests within the game of rugby. Marked superiority in either of these forms of engagement can affect the morale of both teams in a way that corresponds to supremacy. Forward packs spend countless hours developing scrum techniques, but very much less attention is given to the maul, particularly in a defensive situation. Scrums are also elaborately structured, whereas mauls tend to be chaotic. To a large extent, this is due to the relative extent to which the Laws of Rugby regulate the two. Law 20, relating to the scrum, comprises three times as many pages as Law 17 about the maul.

Unlike the scrum, the Laws are silent on what players can do in the maul. Within the maul itself the most relevant clauses are that "Players joining a maul must have their heads and shoulders no lower than their hips; they "must endeavour to stay on their feet"; and "A player must not intentionally collapse a maul". Thus, there remains considerable latitude for creativity.

One very marked difference between the two contests is that in the scrum either pack, whether having the feed or not, has the opportunity to establish dominance and drive the other pack back. By contrast, it is scarce in the maul for the side, not in possession to gain significant ground. This is mostly because tthe team with the ball can surreptitiously transfer the ball laterally from hand to hand so that the push from their opponents bypasses the ball carrier, allowing him to be driven forward more or less unimpeded.

I believe that players can be trained to maul much more effectively, and the secret is body height. In a typical situation where a maul forms the ball carrier stands upright, not attempting to crouch. A teammate may try to seal off the ball with his shoulder at the chest height of the ball carrier. The first opposing player binds on the ball carrier at waist height. None of these players would have their legs positioned to exert a useful forward shove.

The body height adopted by the first players engaging from each team usually defines the height of their side of the ensuing maul. Subsequent players typically bind against the buttocks of the players in front of them. Players arriving at a maul tend to bend at the waist when joining the contest.

Compare the height of this maul with the body height of the same players in a scrum situation. It can be confidently anticipated that body height would be at least 300mm lower in a scrum than in a maul.

If the first defending player were to bind around the thighs of his opponent rather than the waist, he would create a platform for his teammates to bind at something close to scrummaging height. Each of the players is then likely to have optimal hip and knee joint angles for generating forward momentum. It might even be advantageous for players to adopt the second row's technique of binding between the thighs of the player in front, whether teammate or foe. The one essential requirement is that players packing low secure a very firm grip to avoid being penalised for going to the ground.

While front row players in the scrum are prohibited from "lifting or forcing an opponent up", there is no corresponding restriction with mauls. Although lifting is treated as "dangerous play" in the scrum, it does not have the same connotation in the maul where players are bound in an unstructured way and not confined or compressed as in the scrum. With his shoulder under his opponent's buttocks, a player is ideally placed to drive up, forcing the opponent to give ground.

While mauls are often formed in an unstructured way, many of them emerge from static engagements such as the lineout or where the ball is being contested after a tackle. In such a situation, a well-drilled team would have the opportunity to adopt a pseudo-scrum formation and drive forward rapidly. Not only are they likely to gain an advantage in that particular maul, but the practice of adopting biomechanically superior body positions will undoubtedly be energy-conserving over throughout a game.

Article Reference

This article first appeared in:

  • ROSS, B. (2006) Why do rugby players scrum and maul at such different body heights? Brian Mackenzie's Successful Coaching, (ISSN 1745-7513/ 35/ September), p. 5

Page Reference

If you quote information from this page in your work, then the reference for this page is:

  • ROSS, B. (2006) Why do rugby players scrum and maul at such different body heights? [WWW] Available from: [Accessed

About the Author

Bruce Ross is a retired academic who has been President of Sydney University Sport for the past 14 years. He has a background in rugby, both playing and coaching, and in strength development. His company, MyoQuip Pty Ltd, is focused on identifying and exploiting areas where current strength-increasing technology is inadequate or non-existent.