Getting 'set up' to start out right - part 2
Danny O'Dell explains how to position your body and hold the bar correctly when weight training
One may think the approach would not be that big of a deal when lifting the bar off the floor or performing any specific lift but it actually is the beginning of the start. Just consider:
It all adds up to either negatively or positively affecting the outcome of the lift.
The width of the stance at the start
The measurement of stance width is fraught with uncertainty as there is no commonly recognized point of reference. It would seem to be a simple matter of measuring between the heels of each foot, inside to inside. But it is not accepted practice so the best advice unless one is using the sumo stance in the dead-lift is to place the feet pelvic width or narrower. Some coaches even say this foot placement should be the width of the palms. Have the athlete get into the recommended position and see how it feels. Slight adjustments may be necessary but unless the sumo is being used it's best to keep the feet closer together as this will maximize the force applied to the barbell. This is particularly true for the Olympic lifts as the reduction in the vertical component will be evident during the movement.
Early on many coaches believed that the shins should be touching the bar. It was thought that by doing so the bar would cover the least amount of ground coming up, i.e. in a straight line from floor to finish. But starting out like this tends to crowd the other links in the body so they are not set up into an efficient pulling position. Especially affected is the back. Beginning so close to the bar makes it unlikely the lifter will be able to straighten it out to begin lifting.
Current thinking has the bar positioned nearly on the shins with the exact distance determined by the relative experience of the lifter and their particular body type. For example, a novice should be placing their feet so the shins are approximately 5cm from the bar. The shoulders should be situated in a vertical line with the toes. Advanced lifters will vary slightly from this placement. Positioning the feet here places the barbell at the centre of gravity within the support platform of the body. In other words the bar is being lifted from a powerful starting point by being balanced and supported at the centre of gravity, within the athletes' physical structure.
All of the research data was used to calculate the most advantageous movement arms in relationship to the athlete's kinematic chain links. For example he concluded that an athlete with a long torso and short legs would be better off in setting up with their feet 2 to 3 centimetres behind the centre of the line dropping down from their shoulders. Further studies placed a person with normal proportions behind the bar by 0 to 1 centimetre. The last body style examined was one with a short torso and long legs. These athletes were best-positioned 0 to 1 centimetre in front of the bar. Observation of the latter lifter reveals the fact that because of the long legs the lifter will not be able to get into a favourable position behind the bar due to inclination of the shins towards the platform. This obviously forces the bar a slight, but noticeable, amount further away.
There are two standard positions used by the majority of lifters, with tremendous variations applied to each one. The first is with the narrow stance. The lifter places the feet parallel to one another and pointed straight ahead. The second position commonly seen is with the feet angled outward at least 10 to 15 degrees.
If an athlete is setting up in a sumo stance for the dead-lift, the feet will be spaced much wider apart to where they are nearly touching the plates on the bar. The toes in this instance will then be pointing out at an angle approaching 45 degrees. It has been noticed that at the wider angles, the support for the bar is diminished and balance is easily lost either to the front or to the rear.
Determining the angle of the feet to the bar is made by measuring between the long axis of the feet, perpendicular to the bar. In each case of finding the best foot placement angle, the position needs to feel natural and comfortable to the lifter. In some cases this will be determined by the joint mobility of the lifter.
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About the Author
Danny O`Dell is a NSCA Certified Strength and Conditioning coach from the USA. He is the author of a number of training manuals including: The Ultimate Bench Press Manual, Wilderness Basics, Strength training Secrets, Composite training and Power up your Driving Muscles. Danny has published articles in national and international magazines describing the benefits of living the healthy fitness lifestyle.
The following Sports Coach pages provide additional information on this topic: