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Conditioning

Interval training for the games player

Alex Cockram explains how you can increase your aerobic and anaerobic capacity using interval training

Interval sessions are an effective training mechanism allowing athletes to target and improve specific energy systems appropriate to their sport. It is based on the principle that more work can be performed at higher exercise intensities with the same or less fatigue than continuous running. Training can be completed in a controlled environment such as on a treadmill, exercise bike, rowing machine or cross trainer, however as long as the session is structured, interval training can be just as effective on an appropriate sports pitch or court.

Exercise summary

The table below provides a summary of the appropriate exercise intensities, time and rest periods required to train the phosphagen, glycolytic (anaerobic) or oxidative (aerobic) energy systems (Baechle & Earle 2000)[1].

% of Maximum Power Primary System Stressed Typical Exercise Time Range of Exercise to Rest Period Ratios
90-100 Phosphagen 5-10 seconds 1:12 to 1:20
75-90 Fast Glycolysis 15-30 seconds 1:3 to 1:5
30-75 Fast Glycolysis & Oxidative 1-3 minutes 1:3 to 1:4
20-35 Oxidative > 3 minutes 1:1 to 1:3

Aerobic Capacity

Aerobic capacity is the ability to maintain a high work output for a long period of time, while anaerobic capacity is the ability to perform very high workloads repeatedly. It is essential to train aerobic capacity as individuals with high baseline endurance are more resistant to fatigue and will have a faster recovery. This is supported by research, which found that tennis groundstroke hitting accuracy decreased by 69% from rest to volitional fatigue, while service accuracy decreased by 30% (Davey et al. 2002)[2]. Training the anaerobic system plays an important role in improving an individuals' tolerance to lactic acid build up and therefore their ability to cope with the stop-start nature of many sports.

Meets the demands of the sport Sports such as soccer, rugby, basketball and hockey involve intermittent exercise with bouts of short, intense activity breaking up longer periods of low level, moderate intensity exercise. In soccer about 75-90% of the total body's energy expenditure and consumption come from the aerobic system (Reilly 1997)[4] and although high speed actions only contribute around 11% of the total distance covered, they generally are the key moments of the game that directly contribute to goal scoring opportunities (Drust et al. 2000)[3]. Consequently, soccer (and other games sports) uses a combination of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, alternating between intense work and active recovery.

It is essential that interval training mimics the physical demands that are encountered during match play. There is no use sprinting for distances and durations that are not related to the sport and clearly both aerobic and anaerobic energy systems must be stressed. The following interval sessions provide a range of sprint distances, speeds and inclines, with varying periods of active recovery. Although match situations are ultimately the best way to improve sport specific fitness, these structured interval sessions can act as an effective alternative.

Example Interval Sessions

The interval sessions that I have constructed are designed for a treadmill, however they can be applied to other exercise machines or field based training. There are 8 different sessions, which look to target the aerobic system, anaerobic system or a combination of both. Sprint and recovery speeds are suggested however should be adjusted according to your ability in terms of fitness and speed capacity.

Alternatively in terms of heart rate For the glycolytic sessions, sprints should work you to 80-90% Max Heart Rate (HRmax), the oxidative session sprints should work you to 75-85% HRmax and the mixed session sprints should work you between 75-90% HRmax

Treadmill Interval Session (glycolytic 1)

  • Sprint Speed: 16-22 km/h (Fastest)
  • Recovery Speed: 7-10 km/h
  • Incline: 0.5%
  • Sprint 60 sec - Recovery 180 sec
  • Sprint 40 sec - Recovery 120 sec
  • Sprint 30 sec - Recovery 90 sec
  • Sprint 20 sec - Recovery 60 sec
  • Sprint 10 sec - Recovery 30 sec
  • Complete 4 times with 2 min rest between each block (B).

Treadmill Interval Session (oxidative 1)

  • Sprint Speed: 14-20 km/h (Fast)
  • Recovery Speed: 7-10 km/h
  • Incline: 0.5%
  • Sprint 60 sec - Recovery 60 sec
  • Sprint 40 sec - Recovery 40 sec
  • Sprint 30 sec - Recovery 30 sec
  • Sprint 20 sec - Recovery 20 sec
  • Sprint 10 sec - Recovery 10 sec
  • Complete 4-6 times with 2 min rest between each block (B).

Treadmill Interval Session (glycolytic 2)

  • Sprint Speed: B1 = Fastest (-1km/h each B)
  • Recovery Speed: 7-10 km/h
  • Incline: 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% (B1-4)
  • Sprint 60 sec - Recovery 180 sec
  • Sprint 40 sec - Recovery 120 sec
  • Sprint 30 sec - Recovery 90 sec
  • Sprint 20 sec - Recovery 60 sec
  • Sprint 10 sec - Recovery 30 sec
  • Complete 4 times with 2 min rest between each block (B).

Treadmill Interval Session (oxidative 2)

  • Sprint Speed: B1 = Fastest (-1km/h each B)
  • Recovery Speed: 7-10 km/h
  • Incline: 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% (B1-6)
  • Sprint 60 sec - Recovery 60 sec
  • Sprint 40 sec - Recovery 40 sec
  • Sprint 30 sec - Recovery 30 sec
  • Sprint 20 sec - Recovery 20 sec
  • Sprint 10 sec - Recovery 10 sec
  • Complete 4-6 times with 2 min rest between each block (B)

Treadmill Interval Session (Mixed 1)

  • Sprint Speed: Varied (14-22km/h)
  • Recovery Speed: 7-10 km/h
  • Incline: 0.5%
  • Sprint 60 sec (medium sprint) - Recovery 180 sec
  • Sprint 30 sec (fast sprint) - Recovery 90 sec
  • Sprint 10 sec (fastest sprint) - Recovery 20 sec
  • Sprint 30 sec (fast sprint) - Recovery 30 sec
  • Sprint 60 sec (medium sprint) - Recovery 60 sec
  • Complete 6 times with 2 min rest between each block (B).

Treadmill Interval Session (Mixed 2)

  • Sprint Speed: Varied (-1km/h each B)
  • Recovery Speed: 7-10 km/h
  • Incline: : 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% (B1-6)
  • Sprint 60 sec (medium sprint) - Recovery 180 sec
  • Sprint 30 sec (fast sprint) - Recovery 90 sec
  • Sprint 10 sec (fastest sprint) - Recovery 20 sec
  • Sprint 30 sec (fast sprint) - Recovery 30 sec
  • Sprint 60 sec (medium sprint) - Recovery 60 sec
  • Complete 6 times with 3 min rest between each block (B).

Treadmill Interval Session (Mixed 3)

  • Sprint Speed: Varied (14-22km/h)
  • Recovery Speed: 7-10 km/h
  • Incline: 0.5%
  • Sprint 120 sec (medium sprint) - Recovery 180 sec
  • Sprint 60 sec (medium sprint) - Recovery 90 sec
  • Sprint 30 sec (fast sprint) - Recovery 60 sec
  • Sprint 20 sec (fast sprint) - Recovery 20 sec
  • Sprint 10 sec (fastest sprint) - Recovery 10 sec
  • Complete 4 times with 2 min rest between each block (B).

Treadmill Interval Session (Mixed 4)

  • Sprint Speed: Varied (14-22km/h)
  • Recovery Speed: 7-10 km/h
  • Incline: Varied (1-3%)
  • Sprint 120 sec (medium sprint) 1% - Recovery 180 sec
  • Sprint 60 sec (medium sprint) 2% - Recovery 90 sec
  • Sprint 30 sec (fast sprint) 3% - Recovery 30 sec
  • Sprint 60 sec (medium sprint) 2% - Recovery 90 sec
  • Sprint 120 sec (medium sprint) 1% - Recovery 180 sec
  • Complete 4 times with 2 min rest between each block (B).

All of the sessions involve active recovery, which should be a very slow jog. In sessions where the gradient increases by 1% for each block, the maximum sprint speed should decrease by 1% each time. In sessions that involve varied sprint speeds, ensure that there is at least 1km/h difference between each speed (medium, fast, and fastest), so don't start too fast!


References

  1. BAECHLE, T.R. and EARLE, R.W. (2000) Essentials of Strength and Conditioning. Hong Kong: Human Kinetics.
  2. DAVEY, P.R. et al. (2002) Fatigue decreases skilled tennis performance. Journal of Sport Science, 20, P. 311-318.
  3. DRUST, B. et al. (2000) Physiological responses to laboratory-based soccer-specific intermittent and continuous exercise. Journal of Sport Science, 18, p. 885-892.
  4. REILLY, T. (1997) Energetics of high-intensity exercise (soccer) with particular reference to fatigue. Journal of Sport Science, 15, p. 257-263.

Article Reference

This article first appeared in:

  • COCHRAM, A. (2006) Interval training for the games player. Brian Mackenzie's Successful Coaching, (ISSN 1745-7513/ 33/ June), p. 5-7

Page Reference

If you quote information from this page in your work then the reference for this page is:

  • COCHRAM, A. (2006) Interval training for the games player [WWW] Available from: https://www.brianmac.co.uk/articles/scni33a4.htm [Accessed

About the Author

Alex Cochram is a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist and SAQ trainer with an honours degree in Sport and Exercise Science from The University of Bath. He was a committed Lawn Tennis Association scholar at university and has travelled extensively throughout his tennis career. His goal is to offer the knowledge and skills gained from experiences as a semi-professional tennis player, a sport scientist and a strength and conditioning coach to all athletes, especially at the elite level.

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