Interval training for the game's player
Alex Cockram explains how you can increase your aerobic and anaerobic capacity using interval training
Interval sessions are an effective training mechanism allowing athletes to target and improve specific energy systems appropriate to their sport. It is based on the principle that more work can be performed at higher exercise intensities with the same or less fatigue than continuous running. Training can be completed in a controlled environment such as on a treadmill, exercise bike, rowing machine, or cross trainer, however, as long as the session is structured, interval training can be just as effective on an appropriate sports pitch or court.
The table below provides a summary of the appropriate exercise intensities, time, and rest periods required to train the phosphagen, glycolytic (anaerobic), or oxidative (aerobic) energy systems (Baechle & Earle 2000).
Aerobic capacity is the ability to maintain a high work output for a long period, while anaerobic capacity is the ability to perform very high workloads repeatedly. It is essential to train aerobic capacity as individuals with high baseline endurance are more resistant to fatigue and will have a faster recovery. This is supported by research, which found that tennis groundstroke hitting accuracy decreased by 69% from rest to volitional fatigue, while service accuracy decreased by 30% (Davey et al. 2002). Training the anaerobic system plays an important role in improving an individual's tolerance to lactic acid build-up and therefore their ability to cope with the stop-start nature of many sports.
Meets the demands of the sport. Sports such as soccer, rugby, basketball, and hockey involve intermittent exercise with bouts of short, intense activity breaking up long periods of low level, moderate-intensity exercise. In soccer, about 75-90% of the total body's energy expenditure and consumption come from the aerobic system (Reilly 1997) and although high-speed actions only contribute around 11% of the total distance covered, they generally are the key moments of the game that directly contribute to goal scoring opportunities (Drust et al. 2000). Consequently, soccer (and other games sports) uses a combination of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, alternating between intense work and active recovery.
It is essential that interval training mimics the physical demands that are encountered during match play. There is no use sprinting for distances and durations that are not related to the sport and both aerobic and anaerobic energy systems must be stressed. The following interval sessions provide a range of sprint distances, speeds, and inclines, with varying periods of active recovery. Although match situations are the best way to improve sport specific-fitness, these structured interval sessions can act as an effective alternative.
Example Interval Sessions
The interval sessions that I have constructed are designed for a treadmill, however, they can be applied to other exercise machines or field-based training. There are 8 different sessions, which look to target the aerobic system, anaerobic system, or a combination of both. Sprint and recovery speeds are suggested however should be adjusted according to your ability in terms of fitness and speed capacity.
Alternatively, in terms of heart rate For the glycolytic sessions, sprints should work you to 80-90% Max Heart Rate (HRmax), the oxidative session sprints should work you to 75-85% HRmax and the mixed session sprints should work you between 75-90% HRmax
Treadmill Interval Session (glycolytic 1)
Treadmill Interval Session (oxidative 1)
Treadmill Interval Session (glycolytic 2)
Treadmill Interval Session (oxidative 2)
Treadmill Interval Session (Mixed 1)
Treadmill Interval Session (Mixed 2)
Treadmill Interval Session (Mixed 3)
Treadmill Interval Session (Mixed 4)
All of the sessions involve active recovery, which should be a very slow jog. In sessions where the gradient increases by 1% for each block, the maximum sprint speed should decrease by 1% each time. In sessions that involve varied sprint speeds, ensure that there is at least a 1km/h difference between each speed (medium, fast, and fastest), so don't start too fast!
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About the Author
Alex Cochram is a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist and SAQ trainer with an honours degree in Sport and Exercise Science from The University of Bath. He was a committed Lawn Tennis Association scholar at university and has travelled extensively throughout his tennis career. His goal is to offer the knowledge and skills gained from experiences as a semi-professional tennis player, a sports scientist, and a strength and conditioning coach to all athletes, especially at the elite level.