Periodisation - Working towards a long-term plan for young
Tony Paladin explains the steps to planning the training for young athletes.
Coaches need to be aware that appropriate programming is necessary
for improving performance, but it is also essential for reducing the risk of
injury to young athletes. Overtraining or incorrect training, programming can
be a contributing factor to many injuries in young athletes. When developing a
season or annual training plan for young athletes, there is a fundamental process that can be followed to ensure that consideration is taken to minimise
many of the factors which could bring about injuries.
Developing an annual/seasonal training plan for school-age
Diplock et al. (1999)
- Step 1: Identify the major events for which the athletes must
peak. Include any essential dates in the plan, including training camps,
school holidays and exams.
- Step 2: Work chronologically backwards from this date
outlining the weeks and months to the current date.
- Step 3: Divide the plan into three major training phases
of a training plan (preparation, pre-competition, and competition)
- Step 4: Break each phase into the desired macrocycles
and microcycles, incorporating appropriate loading and unloading (recovery)
periods. A general recommendation for young school-age athletes is to have a
three-week macrocycle where you have two weeks of loading followed by one-week
unloading or recovery.
- Step 5: Determine the target training load percentages for
- Step 6: Incorporate a method of monitoring the progress
of the athletes into the plan, e.g. time trials, fitness tests, game rehearsals
Designing a weekly plan for school-age athletes
This process is recommended more for senior athletes, as
junior athletes should be emphasising technical development. Diplock et al. (1999)
- Step 1: Identify which phase the particular week occurs
in and observe the target training load percentages for that phase
- Step 2: Observe the number of minutes, distance or
performance target for that week
- Step 3: Determine the number of minutes and/or distance
for each training zone for that week
- Step 4: Select the suitable training protocols to achieve
these training goals " Step 5: Record and monitor your plan
When designing a program for young athletes, the coach
should follow the following program design methodology. The following figures
refer to microcycles for training days throughout the week.
Young athletes should follow the "light-hard-light-hard"
progression, whilst older and more developed athletes can follow the
For the coach that is training children over the longer term, the
year can be divided into 12 months of training. If the season is
shorter, the following principles are applied but over a shorter period.
The first month is the month immediately after the end of the season. Usually,
the targeted or peak competition concludes the sports season. Therefore, month
12 should be the peak competition, the national championships, the regional
championship or the World Championships.
The coach should decide on the peak competition for each athlete
and count backwards to establish the number of the relevant months of training.
If the national or world championships is the peak competition and it is in
September, then October is month one. This program divides the year into six
main phases. They are listed below with their relative aims:
|Early preparation period
||General strength and endurance
||Months 2 and 3
||Maximum strength and general endurance
||Months 4 and 5
||Maximum strength and specific endurance
||Months 6 and 7
|Early competition period
||Specific endurance and sport technique
||Months 8 and 9
|Peak competition period
||Race/match preparation and peak performance
Months 10, 11 & 12
Increasing the load appropriately
Understanding the methods used to increase training load is
essential for any coach of young athletes. The amount that children and youths
will improve in a particular sport is a direct result of the amount and quality
of work they achieve in training. From the early stages of development through
to high-performance, athletes must increase their workload in training
gradually, according to individual needs. (Bompa 1999; Croly 2001)[1,2]
During the early stages of development, it is not easy to
monitor training loads, because many increases are the result of average growth
and development. A coach can progressively increase training programs for young,
developing athletes in the following areas:
- Duration of sessions: The length of each training session
can increase from the beginning of each season to the end
- Number of Exercises: Athletes can expand the number of
drills and exercises they perform per training session over months and years.
An increase in technical drills will lead to significant advances. However, as
the number of exercises increases, the coach must closely monitor the rest
intervals between them. Longer rest intervals will give the children more
energy to perform all the work for that training session
- The frequency of Training Sessions: To constantly and
progressively challenge the bodies of young athletes toward improved
performance, you must regularly increase the frequency of training sessions per
week. This is essential because skill development occurs during practice and
not during competition. For young athletes to master the skills of the sport
and develop the motor abilities for future competitions, they must have more
training sessions than competitions. There should be a ratio of at least three
practices to one competition although this ratio should ideally be 4-6
practices per competition
- Weeks of Training: Extending the season so there are
more weeks before the competition period starts will lead to significant
improvement in performance. The ideal situation is to practice for most months
of the year as this will lead to better development of skills and motor
- Months of Training: As children become older (16+) and
more experienced, they should commit more months to train in a specific
sport if they desire high-performance results. At first, they should increase
the duration of the training, then the frequency and then the number of exercises.
Working towards a long-term plan
By applying most of the principles and rules that have been
discussed thus far in conjunction with a little common sense, it is not hard to
develop a long-term program that takes a young athlete and turns him or her
into a successful senior athlete.
The key, however, all revolves around making it fun! As much as you, the coach, enjoy having fun, so do your young athlete. If you no
longer participate in a sport, this is a good opportunity to ask
yourself why you no longer compete. The answer is probably because you
were not enjoying it as much as other aspects of your life. One could even go
as far as to say that if you were enjoying your sport to the absolute maximum,
you would quite happily sacrifice the time to do it.
The big challenge that you face as the coach is trying to instil
exercise and training ethic into the "PlayStation Generation"! Your single
biggest challenge as the coach is to make training and participating in sport
more fun than the Internet.
In summary, a long-term training plan needs the following
- Correct and sufficient multilateral development before
- Appropriate training volume and intensity
- Correct periodisation
- Appropriate loading of the work progressively and sufficiently
throughout the season and from year to year
- Correct balancing of the various modalities of training, i.e. flexibility, trunk stability, resistance training (strength and power),
endurance training (aerobic & anaerobic threshold training and lactate
tolerance) and speed training
- Ensuring appropriate recovery between sessions to
keep young athletes fresh
- Make it fun over the long-term
Make the young athlete excited about training and being fit.
This article first appeared in:
- PALADIN, T. (2005) Periodisation - Working towards a long-term plan for young athletes. Brian Mackenzie's Successful Coaching, (ISSN 1745-7513/ 19 / February), p. 3-4
- BOMPA, T. (1999) Total training for young champions. USA, Human
- CROLY, J. (2001) Rowing: A guide to developing high
performance. RSA, Private Press
- DIPLOCK, W. et al. (1999) Fundamentals of Injury Prevention and Maximising Performance in School Age
Rowers. Aus, Rowing Qld. Inc. Publication
If you quote information from this page in your work, then the reference for this page is:
- PALADIN, T. (2005) Periodisation - Working towards a long-term plan for young athletes [WWW] Available from: https://www.brianmac.co.uk/articles/scni19a2.htm [Accessed
About the Author
Tony Paladin is a qualified personal fitness trainer, spinning instructor and rowing coach. He has represented South Africa in Rowing 7 times at various World Championships and World Cups, been 12 times national rowing champion and under 23 World Championship silver medallist. He has a BSc. WITS (Human Kinetics, Physiology and Psychology) and is currently studying BSc. Biokinetics Honours.