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What the experts say

Nigel Hetherington reviews the latest research material relating to coaching, exercise physiology, and athletic development.

Meeting athlete expectations…

As the knowledge base of sport continues to expand and mature through both experience and the application of contemporary sports science, the expectation of athletes continues to grow. This situation can be argued to support the adoption of a long-term athlete development (LTAD) approach[1] whereby realistic and attainable goals are set over a long period in the order of years in line with the athlete's physical and mental ability to develop and adapt. The upshot of this and, in particular, the impact on the coach to the athlete, is that he/she might want to ensure that they adopt an approach based on LTCD - long-term coach development. In this modern climate of continuous development of the knowledge base, it is entirely likely that a coach who disregards the LTCD principle may never see their athlete achieve their true potential. Worse still (for the coach), in an environment where athletes are becoming increasingly knowledgeable about their events, the athlete may vote with their feet and look for a coach who can continue to move them forward toward their dreams and beyond….

Coaches, who can remain open-minded, are prepared to embrace new ideas, and who regularly allocate time to keep up with fact-based findings and developments are more likely to enjoy the long-term continuous development of their athletes and share in their successes.

This regular feature sets out to provide a valuable resource to every coach by providing a brief review of some of the findings currently being made around the world by sports scientists and medical professionals and which are generally supported by published scientific studies.

Stress levels already rising? - Then read on…

Everyone is aware of the stresses placed upon athletes to deliver results whether it is to gain selection, stay in the team, or retain pride and honour to keep that scholarship or funding in place. However, spare a thought for the coach who also experiences both internally and externally generated pressure to perform continually. A recent study[2] highlights the difficulty a coach may have in 'switching off' and dedicating time to other essential components of their lives such as relationships, leisure, and, for most, just earning a living! The study goes on to provide a 10-point plan for developing and implementing a series of lifestyle-management measures for coaches. Proposals in the plan include 'leaving the sport with sport' by, wherever possible, providing debriefs, reviews, and plans at the end of a session rather than taking it home; clarifying with athletes and parents when they may contact you by telephone (including mobiles/cell phones) and establishing a mentor coach who you can approach for advice and support.

Now you can deal with your stress, what about your athlete?

A recent report[3] highlights the dramatic role the coach plays in the training and reinforcement of an athlete's mental toughness, motivation, commitment, and ultimately willpower. Without these vital qualities, the athlete will be unable to produce the required consistent intensity and effort in the training situation, and as a result, will not attain their true performance potential in competition. This is supported by a separate report[4] on mental toughness and focus outlining the fact that during the competition there are often defining moments that carry great psychological significance, when, for example, the momentum starts to shift in one direction or another. Rehearsal of strategies in training including the use of simulation training to 'recreate' the critical moments of stress and pressure experienced in competition, but in a controlled environment, can be an invaluable approach to preparing the athlete for the real challenges of competition.

This process is by no means limited to environmental or physical parameters. Developing competence in athletes in mental exercises, including centering, and imagery can lead to greater self-belief. A recent article[5] highlighting ways in which a coach can encourage athletes to use imagery identifies current information on imagery use. It dispels some of the myths associated with this form of training. Four key areas where imagery can be employed are summarized comprising 'strategic imagery' where, for example, a gymnast may visualize their whole routine to increase the natural flow of their performance; 'goal-oriented imagery' based on visualizing the outcome - for example standing on a medal podium; 'arousal imagery', whereby the athlete focuses on a highly specific image that may bring about specific physiological changes such as raising or lowering of heart rate and finally, the use of 'imagery for mastery and maintaining control' through rehearsing various scenarios during an event and practicing how to react and deal with that situation through imagery.

How do we know how much the athlete is committing?

One big challenge that continually faces the coach is to assess the effort level being made by the athlete in training as well as competition. Being motivated to train to achieve the result is rarely enough. The athlete needs appropriate feedback to let both them and the coach know exactly where they are. Testing of athletes with a focus on the crucial aspects of measurement and evaluation is the subject of a report entitled 'Making sense of testing'[6]. The report seeks to provide measurement and objectivity to some of the elements of performance that are usually more kinaesthetic or cognitive to coaches. From a motivational perspective routine testing of athletes objectively can be very positive provided realistic and meaningful tests are performed in the appropriate context.

Strength conditioning arguments…

A global area where more ignorance than knowledge and where more fear than practice reigns in the area of strength training. Emotional, subjective, and purely anecdotal counter-arguments to the practice of strength conditioning activities have served to further muddy the waters over many years.

Recent publications are starting to redress the balance with one[7] focusing on the importance of recognizing the relationship and differences between maximum strength training and a complete approach to strength and power training to optimize performance.

A paper[8] looking at the issue from a primary care perspective with children and adolescents concludes that informed clinicians could now reassure parents that, with adult supervision, proper equipment, and realistic expectations, strength-training programs designed for children and adolescents are both safe and effective. Programs designed and delivered in this manner may be implemented for a child to gain a competitive advantage in a sport without placing the child at risk of musculoskeletal and epiphysial (growth plate) injuries.

In a further paper[9] having established that this form of training is not only safe but also beneficial to the young athlete the effect of different training frequencies on developing and maintaining muscle strength in children is investigated.

In one study, strength increases in children are reviewed, and physiological factors are considered[10]. The findings are developed into providing guidelines on frequency, intensity, duration, sets, and repetitions as well as proposing compound or isolated exercises to enable those working with children to make better-informed decisions. Finally, in a recent article[11], the importance of making the strength training specific to the event is discussed about speed in athletics. The author highlights the need to recognize the demands of the event and to identify specific exercises that will serve to increase acceleration and top-speed running.

Plyometrics and the young athlete…

Coaches are becoming increasingly familiar with the idea that plyometric training can be very successfully used on the back of a specific strength-conditioning program and alongside power training to develop peak performance in many athletes. A recent report[12] looks at how plyometrics may be adapted in terms of type and intensity for use by coaches working with young athletes. Reference is given of the considerations to the height of any barriers or boxes employed, the nature of the training surface, footwear, technique, and the number of repetitions as well as proposals for progression.

Providing help with injury rehabilitation…

Coaches dread hearing the words, 'Sorry coach I cannot train, l am injured' or, 'Sorry coach I cannot train, l am ill'. The former sends most coaches into a flat spin since few are qualified in injury assessment and treatment. After initial diagnosis, all too often a long period of rest is advocated when it may be advisable to engage in a short period of rest followed by a carefully managed rehabilitation program.

A recent study[13] looked into chronic Achilles tendinosis, a condition quite prevalent in middle-aged recreational athletes, whereby the tendon becomes thickened. After following a specific rehabilitation program based on heavy-load eccentric calf muscle training, 22 of the 25 patients not only reported improvement but also the re-measurement of their tendon thickness supported this. It was concluded that eccentric load training was critical in this improvement. The implication here to coaches looking at rehabilitating athletes with this condition is obvious.

…and advice to help overcome chronic health conditions

Being ill is an unfortunate situation but a common occurrence for all athletes. For some, however, it is all too common. A recent study[14] looked at athletes with persistent fatigue and recurrent infections to investigate whether underlying medical conditions contribute to the fatigue and high incidence of infections that can occur during repeated, intense training. Forty-one competitive athletes (22 male, 19 female) with persistent fatigue and/or recurrent infections associated with performance decrements had a thorough medical examination and a series of clinical investigations to identify potential medical causes. In summary, the findings were highly revealing - conditions with the potential to cause fatigue and recurrent infections being identified in 68% of the athletes! The most common were partial humoral immune deficiency (28%) and unresolved viral infections (27%). Non-fasting hypoglycaemia was also common (28%). The study concluded that athletes with recurrent infections, fatigue, and associated poor performance might benefit from a thorough investigation of potentially reversible underlying medical conditions, especially when these conditions disrupt training and competition. Unresolved viral infections are not routinely assessed in elite athletes, but they may be worth considering in those experiencing fatigue and performing poorly. From the perspective of coaches, there are clear steps that can be taken or suggested to athletes if such chronic conditions have been experienced.

Article Reference

This article first appeared in:

  • HETHERINGTON, N. (2004) What the experts say. Brian Mackenzie's Successful Coaching, (ISSN 1745-7513/ 11 / April), p. 11-13


  1. GORDON, Richard. LTAD: 10 steps on the road to success Swimming (GBR), October 2003, pp. 26-27
  2. FLANAGAN, Judy. The coaching profession - how much is too much? Sports Coach (AUS), Vol.26, No. 3 2003, pp 23-24
  3. BOND, Jeffrey. Training willpower Sports Coach (AUS), Vol.26, No. 3 2003, pp 9-11
  4. CRUST, Lee. Mental toughness: do you have what it takes to maintain focus, motivation and self-belief when the going gets hard? Peak Performance (GBR), August 2003, pp 1-4
  5. BROWNELL, Kyle et al. The Power of Imagery Coaches Report (CAN), Vol. 9, No. 3, Winter 2003, pp 23-25
  6. GOLDSMITH, Wayne. Making sense of testing Sports Coach (AUS), Vol.26, No. 2 2003, pp 25-28
  7. BRANDON, Raphael. Strength or Power: Which matters most for peak athletic performance. Peak Performance (GBR), October 2003, pp. 1-4
  8. BENJAMIN, Holly J. et al. Strength training for children and adolescents: what can physicians recommend? Physician and Sports Medicine (USA), Vol. 31, No. 9, September 2003, pp. 19-26
  9. ROETERT, Paul E. Strength training for kids: how often? Strength and Conditioning Journal (USA), Vol. 25, No. 3, June 2003, pp. 76-77
  10. SALTER, Beau. Resistance training for children: research implications for teachers and coaches. ACHPER Healthy Lifestyles Journal (AUS), Vol. 39, No. 3-4, 2002, pp. 20-25
  11. SHEPPARD, Jeremy M. Strength and conditioning exercise selection in speed development. Strength and Conditioning Journal (USA), August 2003, pp. 26-30
  12. GARDINER, Phil. Plyometrics for young athletes. The Coach (GBR), May-June 2003, pp. 35-39
  13. ÖHBERG L. et al. Eccentric training in patients with chronic Achilles tendinosis: normalised tendon structure and decreased thickness at follow up. British Journal of Sports Medicine, No. 38, 2004, pp. 8-11
  14. REID V. L. et al. Clinical investigation of athletes with persistent fatigue and / or recurrent infections. British Journal of Sports Medicine, No. 38, 2004, pp. 42-45

Page Reference

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About the Author

Nigel Hetherington was the Head Track & Field Coach at the internationally acclaimed Singapore Sports School. He is a former National Performance Development Manager for Scottish Athletics and National Sprints Coach for Wales. Qualified and highly active as a British Athletics level 4 performance coach in all events he has coached athletes to National and International honours in sprints, hurdles as well as a World Record holder in the Paralympic shot.

He has ten years experience as a senior coach educator and assessor trainer on behalf of British Athletics. Nigel is also an experienced athlete in sprint (World Masters Championship level) and endurance (3-hour marathon runner plus completed the 24 hour 'Bob Graham Round' ultra-endurance event up and down 42 mountain peaks in the English Lake District). He is a chartered chemist with 26 years of experience in scientific research and publishing.