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Are Jockeys Fit?

Enda McElhinney explains why jockeys are some of the fittest athletes in the world.

When it comes to sporting endeavours, few people truly appreciate the level of skill and fitness a top-ranked jockey possesses. For the uninformed observer, racing a horse is no more complicated than putting on a brightly coloured outfit and helmet, sitting on a saddle, and holding on to the reigns. Many people assume that the horse is doing most of the work during a race. Now, there is some truth in those assumptions. However, most people fail to realise that jockeys are elite-level athletes who have to hone their skills over many years of practice and training. Yes, it helps to be a specific build and height, but professional jockeys need much more to make it to the top.

Making Weight is a Skill

According to the British Racing School's guidelines, all aspiring jockeys must start as apprentices or conditional jockeys. Much like an athlete would begin at their local running club or a footballer would join an academy, jockeys cut their teeth as an apprentice riders. Aside from being given tasks to complete around the yard (mucking out the horses, etc.), apprentice jockeys have to watch their weight. Under the terms of professional racing, when an apprentice enters a professional race, they can "claim weight".

This means they can be lighter than their opponents in a bid to reduce their disadvantage. For example, if a three-race novice were sitting beside one of the best jump jockeys of all time, AP McCoy, they would be the considerable underdog. Indeed, with 3,000 career wins by 2009, McCoy won significantly more races than the amateur may even ride in their career. Because of this, the novice is allowed to race lighter based on the following table:

7lb Claimer

  • Until they have 20 wins (Apprentice)
  • Until they have 15 wins (Conditional)

5lb Claimer

  • Until they have 50 wins (Apprentice)
  • Until they have 40 wins (Conditional)

3lb Claimer

  • Until they have 95 wins (Apprentice)
  • Until they have 75 wins (Conditional)

Professional Racers Are Bound by Stats

To give these conditions some context, let us take a practical example. The Cheltenham Festival is one of the most prestigious National Hunt (jump racing) festivals globally. In March over four days, the event brings together the top jump jockeys in the world. Naturally, with the margins between the top riders so tight, the odds are often close in the big races. For example, if you looked down the race card for this year's Arkle Trophy, you would see that all bar the favourite are relatively evenly matched.

Using Oddschecker's Cheltenham Festival odds database, you can see that the top bookmakers have Altior at 1/3. At the same time, the likes of Yorkhill (9/2), Charbel (10/1), and Royal Caviar (14/1) are all close in the betting. Now, if you were to put an apprentice with 50 wins on Charbel, they would be granted a 5lb claimer. In simple terms, this means they can be 5lb lighter than their more experienced opponents.

The weight allowance is 8st 8lb, so this would mean the apprentice could ride at 8st 3lb. Naturally, if the horse has less weight to carry, it can run slightly faster and take jumps marginally easier. Of course, this allowance will not wholly offset the skill differential between a novice and a pro, but it will help. However, making the 8st 3lb is not easy. Making weight is a skill in its own right.

Being Race Ready is a Year-Round Effort for Jockeys

Professional jockeys have to eat well throughout the year. Unlike boxers who can afford to bulk up in between fights then cut down for a six to eight-week training camp, jockeys are required to ride every week. Because of this, they always have to stay on or around their target weight. This can be a lot tougher for a novice because they will often be instructed to take their maximum claimer.

Looking at the diet of former jump jockey Jim Crowley, high protein low carbohydrates is the way forward. After starting the day with scrambled eggs and green tea, he will run or work on the horses. From there, a high-protein meal with a cup of sweet tea or some jelly babies will give him a quick sugar hit that allows him to work through the afternoon's training session. However, not a strictly ketogenic diet, the high-protein/low-carb ratio forces the body to metabolise fat for energy. This helps keep Crowley and jockeys like him around the weight they need to be.

Speed, Power, and Balance Keep a Jockey Stable

Of course, it is not all about making weight. Professional jockey Sam Twiston-Davies notes that his training is the anaerobic endurance he needs. Although jockeys need to be aerobically fit for the bulk of the race, the final quarter is a sprint that requires the rider to tense up and thrust their arms and legs at full power. Because of this, jockeys will do a lot of sprint training. Short bursts of 10m to 25m sprints with short periods of rest in between help the athletes build up their lactic acid tolerance so they can push their maximum effort for longer.

On top of this, jockeys have to have exceptional balance and grip strength to stay on a horse running and jumping at speeds close to 40 mph. When you take all of this into account, it is easy to see why jockeys are some of the fittest sportspeople in the world. Although they might not look like a rugby player or have the grace of a gymnast, they are highly skilled at what they do. So, the next time you think it is easy to ride a horse, look at a pro like Twiston-Davies and ask yourself if you could do the same.

Page Reference

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  • McELHINNEY, E. (2017) Are Jockeys fit? [WWW] Available from: [Accessed

About the Author

Enda McElhinney is a sports enthusiast with a passion for Horse Racing. Away from the racetrack, Enda enjoys researching the sports science behind racing and the training regimes within a sport.