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10 km Training

A training program has to be developed to meet the individual needs of the athlete and take into consideration many factors: gender, age, strengths, weaknesses, objectives, training facilities etc. As all athletes have different needs, a single program suitable for all athletes is not possible. The program supplied here is just an example and will require updates to meet your specific aims and objectives.

Prior to starting any training, it is recommended you have a medical examination to ensure it is safe for you to do so.

What's involved in a 10 km race?

In 1976, Fox and Matthews stated that the 10 km distance used the following energy pathways:

  • 70% O2 (aerobic)
  • 20% LA-O2 work
  • 10% ATP-PC-LA work

Specimen sessions for the energy pathways are as follows:

Pathway Speed Example session
O2 Target 10 km pace 6 × 1200 metres with half the running time as rest
LA-O2 Target 3 km pace 4 × 2 × 800 metres with the running time as rest
ATP-PC-LA Target 1.5 km pace 4 × 4 × 400 metres with twice the running time as rest

In practical terms this is seven sessions out of ten allocated to O2 running, two to LA-O2 and one to ATP-PC-LA

Example 10 km Training Plan & Programs

The objective of each phase, with links to examples of a season's training plan and four week training programs for phases 1, 2 and 3, are as follows:

  • Training Plan - General overview of the season by phases
  • Phase 1 - General development of strength, mobility, endurance and basic technique
  • Phase 2 - Development of specific fitness and advanced technical skills
  • Phase 3 - Competition experience - achievement of qualification times for main competition
  • Phase 4 - Adjustment of technical model, preparation for the main competition
  • Phase 5 - Competition experience and achievement of outdoor objectives
  • Phase 6 - Active recovery - planning preparation for next season

The content of the four week programs in phases four and five depends very much on the athletes progress and competition races. Your aim in these phases is to address any limitations the athlete may have in order to bring him/her to a peak of performance for the major competition in phase five.

Overview of the Training Program

The seasons training plan is based on six phases where each phase comprises of a repeated four week program. The workload in the first three weeks of the four week program increase each week (easy, medium, hard) and the fourth week comprises of active recovery and tests to monitor training progress. The aim of the four week cycles is to:

  • Build you up to a level of fitness (3 weeks)
  • Test, recovery and adjustment of the training program (1 week)
  • Build you up to higher level of fitness (3 weeks)
  • Test, recovery and adjustment of the training program (1 week)
  • Build you up to an even higher level of fitness (3 weeks)
  • and so on

Remember a training program is athlete specific and the results of the tests in the fourth week can be used to adjust the training in the next four week cycle to address any limitations.

The content and quantity of training in each week and phase will depend on many factors. The Planning page provides an insight into the process of data gathering and preparing training programs

Specific Training Phases

In the specific training phases, you will see that you run at three different paces - race pace, 5% faster than race pace and 5% slower than race pace. To do this you have to decide on a realistic target time for your 10 km in phase five. The use of appropriate tests in week four of the training plan can be used to determine if your target time needs adjustment and accordingly the session times on your training plan.

What are the objectives of running at these three different paces?

  • 5% faster than 10 km pace - to improve leg speed and the ability to pick 'it up' in a race - specific endurance sessions would involve maximum distances of 3 km in a single repetition
  • 10 km race pace - to improve VO2 max and resistance to fatigue and train the body to operate at the required 10 km pace - specific endurance sessions would involve maximum distances of 8 km in a single repetition
  • 5% slower than 10 km race pace - to improve lactic threshold and teach you to function for longer periods - helps when there is a heat before the final - specific endurance sessions would involve maximum distances of 16 km in a single repetition.

Training Activities

The following are links to the appropriate page for the activities identified on the training programs.

Training Pace

The pace indicated for the sessions is in terms of percentage of a distance pb. e.g. 3 × 1 km in tpb+5%. If the athlete has a target personal best (tpb) of 30 minutes for the 10 km then running at tpb+5% pace would require the athlete to complete the 10 km in 31 minutes 34 seconds, (30 x 100 ÷ 95) so the 1 km should be completed in 3 minutes 9 seconds.

Training Pace Calculator

Enter the Event Distance, the Target Personal Best Time for the event distance, the Training Session Distance, the Training Session Effort and then select the "Calculate Training Session Time" button.

Event Distance metres
Target Personal Best Time minutes seconds
Training Session Distance metres
Training Session Effort
Training Session Time minutes seconds

Evaluation Tests

The following evaluation tests can be used to monitor the athlete's development:

Race Time Goals

For the 10 km specialist it is possible to predict their race pace and potential times for other distances. Enter their current 10 km time and select the Calculate button:

10 km time is minutes seconds
Potential Times for their distances
Marathon hours minutes seconds
5 km minutes seconds
3 km minutes seconds
1500 metres minutes seconds

10k Race pace
minutes seconds/km
minutes seconds/mile

Prediction based on 10 km time

It is possible to predict your 400 metres, 800 metres, 1500 metres, 3 km, 5 km, ½ Marathon and Marathon times from your current 10 km time using Frank Horwill's four second rule for male athletes and Frank Horwill's five second rule for female athletes.

Rules of Competition

The competition rules for this event can be obtained from:

Page Reference

The reference for this page is:

  • MACKENZIE, B. (2001) 10km Training Program [WWW] Available from: [Accessed

Related Pages

The following Sports Coach pages provide additional information on this topic:

Associated Books

The following books provide more information related to this topic:

  • How to Teach Track Events, M. Arnold