Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test
Testing and measurement are the means of collecting information
upon which subsequent performance evaluations and
decisions are made but in the analysis we need to bear in mind the factors that may influence the results.
There are two versions of the "Yo-Yo Endurance Test" developed by Bangsbo (1994) which are both similar to the Beep test. The version one test, designed for recreational players, is the same as the standard Multistage Fitness Test. Version 2, designed for elite players, starts at a higher running speed, 13km/hr compared to 10km/hr for version 1, and has different increments in speed.
The objective of the "Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test" is to monitor
the development of the athlete's maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and ability to perform repeated interval work.
To undertake this test you will require :
- Flat non-slippery surface
- 30 metre tape measure
- Marking cones
- The Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test CD
- CD Player
- Recording sheets
How to conduct the test
This test requires the athlete to run 20m in time with a beep from a CD recording. The athlete must place one foot on or beyond the 20m marker at the end of each shuttle.
- The athlete warms up for 10 minutes
- The assistant measure out a 20 metre and 5m section and mark with cones (A, B and C)
- When signalled by the CD the athlete runs from cone C to cone B
- The athlete then has a 10 second active recovery by jogging to cone A and back to cone B
- The athlete continues running between the cones as signalled by the CD
- The assistant keeps a record of each completed lap (22.5m)
- A warning is given when the athlete does not complete a successful out and back shuttle (cone B to C and and back to B) in the allocated time, the the next time the athlete does not complete a successful shuttle the test is stopped
- The assistant records the total distance completed
A formula for estimating VO2 max (ml/min/kg) from the result of the "Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 2" (Bangsbo et al. 2008):
- VO2 max = distance in meters x 0.0136 + 45.3
A formula for estimating VO2 max(ml/min/kg) from the result of the "Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1" (Bangsbo et al. 2008):
- VO2 max = distance in meters x 0.0084 + 36.4
Analysis of the result is by comparing it with the results of
previous tests. It is expected that, with appropriate training between each
test, the analysis would indicate an improvement.
This test was developed specifically for soccer players, though it is suitable for similar sports where the athlete's participation is intermittent. The test is not suitable for individuals where a maximal exercise test would be contraindicated.
Test reliability refers to the degree to which a test is consistent and stable in measuring what it is intended to measure. Reliability will depend upon how strict the test is conducted and the individual's level of motivation to perform the test. The following link provides a variety of factors that may influence the results and therefore the test reliability.
Test validity refers to the degree to which the test actually measures what it claims to measure and the extent to which inferences, conclusions, and decisions made on the basis of test scores are appropriate and meaningful. This test provides a means to monitor the effect of training on the athlete's physical development.
- Minimal equipment required
- Simple to set up and conduct
- Can be conducted almost anywhere
- Specialist equipment required
- Assistant required to administer the test
This test is available from Bitworks (on their site see the paragraph on "Team Beep Test Software for PC") and is also available as an App ("Team Beep Test") for the iPhone.
- BANGSBO, J. (1994) Fitness Training in Football: A Scientific Approach. August Krogh Institute: Copenhagen University
- BANGSBO, J. et al. (2008) The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test: A Useful Tool for Evaluation of Physical Performance in Intermittent Sports, Sports Medicine, 38 (1), p. 37-51.
The following references provide additional information on this topic:
- CASTAGNA, C. et al. (2006) Aerobic Fitness and Yo-Yo Continuous and Intermittent Tests Performances in Soccer Players: A correlation Study. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 20 (2), p. 320-325
- CASTAGNA, C. et al. (2006). Cardiorespiratory responses to Yo-yo Intermittent Endurance Test in non-elite youth soccer players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 20 (2), p. 326-330
- OBERACKER, L. et al. (2012) The Yo-Yo IR2 test: physiological response, reliability, and application to elite soccer. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 26 (10), p. 2734-2740
The reference for this page is:
- MACKENZIE, B. (2008) Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test [WWW] Available from: http://www.brianmac.co.uk/yoyoirt.htm [Accessed
The following Sports Coach pages provide additional information on this topic: