An efficient stroke will significantly reduce wasted energy output through less drag in the water and a cleaner execution of hand and arm entry and recovery. When considering swimming technique for any stroke, analysis should follow the format described below, in this order:
The leg kick will control the body position in the water, while the arm cycle will provide the propulsive force. The timing between the two is vital to the efficiency of the given stroke in order to provide a greater speed through the water with minimum wasted energy.
Finally, breathing technique should be analysed to ensure that when you breathe your overall technique is not disrupted in any way that would cause a breakdown in efficiency.
Because of the required shoulder roll during backstroke swimming and a slightly weaker arm cycle, the legs play a more important part in adding a propulsive force to the stroke. The key, however, is to ensure that the feet work just under the water surface and not above it, to ensure that the full kicking movement is propulsive and not against thin air.
The arm cycle
Thumb first, arm fully extended, rotate the arm laterally through the shoulder joint, keeping in line with the body, gradually turning the hand laterally at the wrist ready for the entry. Allowing the opposite shoulder to drop will lift the recovery shoulder to help balance the stroke and create a more powerful propulsive phase.
Entry & Catch
Little finger first, drop the shoulder to allow a reach and "catch" the water with the hand cupped. The arm should flex slightly at the elbow to assist in the catch.
Continue to flex the arm at the elbow as you press laterally, then downwards as you pull the hand towards the shoulder and chest, keeping that shoulder in the drop position.
With the arm close to the body, press the water towards the feet in line with the body, ensuring full arm extension is achieved.
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