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Speed

How to improve your sprinting speed

Patrick Beth provides a few tips that will help you improve your sprinting speed

Drive Phase - Do not force yourself to stay low

The drive phase happens right after you react to the starting gun. Your initial 8 -10 steps is considered your drive phase. The biggest problem seen with athletes in the drive phase is that they know that staying low will create better exit angles to set-up the ideal acceleration phase. The problem is that athletes are 'trying' to stay low.

When athletes try and stay low they normally hold themselves down by breaking at the hips. This will limit the amount of force you can apply to the ground and leads to poor acceleration. Let your upper body unfold naturally. You want to keep a straight line from your back ankle all the way to your head. Staying low will occur naturally if you are already strong enough.

Other cues:

  • Drive out so the body is at a 45 degree angle to the ground
  • Keep the heel recovery low during the first 6-8 strides
  • Step over the opposite knee and drive the foot down into the ground to create maximal force

Acceleration Phase

Since the acceleration phase (0-30 yards) is associated with a higher stride frequency then at maximum speed, athletes are concerning themselves too much trying to be quick with their legs. So, instead of trying to drive out and be powerful, athletes are 'spinning their wheels'. Make sure when you are running the 40 that you getting triple extension (ankle, knee, hip) and that you 'feel your feet behind you'. If you are getting the sensation of your feet driving well behind your centre of mass, then you know you are finishing off your leg drive to be as powerful as possible. If you try to be to quick with your legs, you will not be using your full strength to drive out and although you might feel a little faster because your legs are moving quicker, you will actually have a slower time and not set yourself up to be in the best possible position.

Relaxation

One of the hardest things about running is trying to stay relaxed while you run. Most athletes first think that in order to run fast that they have to run hard. They associate running hard with trying to create as much tension as possible. You can tell easily if an athlete is too tense, just by looking at their facial expression.

If you see an athlete with a tight face, their eyes will be squinting, teeth are mashed, and you know that they are trying too hard and are forcing themselves to be slow down. If you see an athlete with their cheeks flopping up and down as they run, you know that they have mastered the relaxation technique and are getting the most out their sprinting.

I remember sprint coach guru Charlie Francis saying that you must 'let the speed come'. You have to let your muscles work for you and not against to maximize your speed potential. This is a tough concept to learn and MUST be practiced if you want get the most out of our speed. Other things to look for if you are running tight are clenched fists, elevated shoulders and a shortened stride.

Arm Action

The arms play a significant, yet overlooked, role in sprinting and speed development. Without specifically and regularly addressing proper arm mechanics within your speed training program, full speed potential will not be realized. Today we will address this issue so that we can continue to make improvements on the athletic field.

The role of the arms is to stabilize the torso so that power can continue to be efficiently transferred through the hips. It is this ability to transfer power effectively through the centre of mass that not only improves rate of acceleration, but also facilitates reaching maximum velocity, maintaining those top speeds and reducing the rate of deceleration. So, as you can see, the arms both directly and indirectly influence the ability to run fast.

Now let us get into the specifics of improving our arm action.

When running, it is very important to keep your hands relaxed. Think about holding a potato chip in each hand. No matter how hard you run, no matter how tired you get, you cannot clench your hands so that the potato chip breaks. This is a good way of thinking about how loose your hands should be at all times when running. When you start to clench your fists tightly, that tightness spreads like through your forearms, biceps, shoulders, neck and face. Once you tighten up and lose range of motion in your arms, it reduces stride length, which is difficult to get back without burning a lot of energy.

While sprinting, it is important to get a full range of motion with the arms. Remember, speed is a product of stride length and stride frequency. Stride length and frequency are determined, in part, by the motion of the arms. If you are lazy or passive with your arm action, you are limiting your potential for speed.

Your front arm angle should be between 60-90 degrees at the elbow and your back arm should be between 90-120 degrees, also at the elbow. If your arm angles fall outside of this range, your running mechanics will be negatively affected. In short, you will run slower and get tired faster. When running, arm swing should be initiated at and through the shoulders. You should think of your elbow as being locked in place.

Elbow angle should only change slightly, as a result of elastic response. Range of motion with the arms should generally be hip to cheek. That is, the hand clears the hip in the back and comes up to about cheek height in front. Much more than that, in either direction, will result in over striding which, as mentioned before, will cause breaking and can lead to strains, pulls and tears in the muscle.

When running, emphasis should be placed on driving the elbows down and back. When runners fire their arms straight back, without first driving them down, it often leads to bunched up shoulders, which causes tightness and limits range of motion. It is important to focus on driving the arms back as they are recovered elastically by the stretch of muscles in the shoulder. So, do not drive your arms up and forward because stretch reflex is going to bring them forward anyway.

Another aspect of arm action is to avoid lateral deviation beyond the saggital plane. What this means is that your arms, when they are brought in front of you, should never cross the midline of your body. Your right arm should stay on the right half of your body and your left arm should stay on the left side.

When you move your arms laterally, across the midline of your body, you rotate your hips which basically burns much needed energy and makes you run slower and get tired faster, all for no reason other than laziness and lack of concentration. Remember, you compete like you practice, so if you do not correct technical issues in practice, you cannot expect them to be fixed in competition.

Example exercises

This drill can be practiced either in a group setting, or alone by standing in front of mirror. Stand with the feet between hip and shoulder width apart. Bring your weight forward onto the balls of the feet. You should be far enough forward that your heels are slightly off the ground, but not so far forward that your toes curl to maintain balance. It is this slight, 2- 4 degree lean that is ideal for simulating sprinting. Start with one arm forward, 90 degrees at the elbow and one arm back, also 90 degrees at the elbow. Perform this drill following the guidelines presented in this article.

  • Arm action at 50% intensity
  • 2 sets of 30 seconds
  • 15 second rest between sets
  • Arm action at 80% intensity
  • 2 sets of 20 seconds
  • 20 seconds rest between sets
  • Arm action at 100% intensity
  • 4-5 sets of 10 seconds
  • 25-30 seconds rest between sets

Mastering proper arm action is simply a function of knowing what to do and then repeating the proper pattern until muscle memory makes it the new natural pattern.

Hands: Open vs. Closed

Cueing the hands can be a touchy subject. Some coaches believe that having your hands open is the best way while others like a closed hand for their athletes to use while running.

First, I would look at the athlete. If they look as if their shoulders/arms are staying relaxed and are not crossing the midline then you should not cue this athlete too much with hand technique. There are so many other cues and techniques to work on then to worry about their hands if they do not seem to be causing a problem.

If your athlete is not staying relaxed in their arms and shoulders then I would address then hands. Usually if the hands are wide open with the fingers and palms are straight, the forearm tends to be flexed. This causes tension of the arm and the upper arm and shoulders, and as you know, this can affect the elasticity of your muscles causing you to fight yourself as you move. The same thing can happen when you make a fist and try to run. Holding your hands clenched causes your forearms to be tight and you will run into the same problem as the 'open' hand.

I teach in between both of these. You want your hands to stay relaxed. I am sure you have heard this saying before to 'pretend you are holding a potato chip in your hand and you do not want to break it'. You can actually feel your fingers almost bouncing up and down as your run. This is the type of relaxation that should carry to the rest of your arm up to your shoulder. Keep the hands loose, but not open.

Another thing to note is that looking at the top receivers and defensive backs, they never run with closed hands because they want their hands to be as soft as possible to catch a ball. If their hands are closed, their arms will be tight and it will take more time to open them and create the soft hands that they are looking for.

Stride Length

We touched a little on stride frequency; now let us get into stride length. Your optimal stride length should be about 2.5-2.7 times your leg length (measured from the crest of your greater trochanter to the floor).

While optimal stride length is important, I would stay away form certain exercises to try to increase it. Excessive downhill and over speed running can actually cause problems with your running technique. If the slope going downhill is too much and if you are being pulled fast during over speed work, your legs starts to create a braking action. This is where your foot plantar flexes (toes pointed down) in front of your centre of mass to try and stop that speed. So, you are fighting yourself and stopping any speed you are trying to create. This can not only cause damage to your hamstrings but can also create neuromuscular integration problems.

Flexibility (dynamic ranges of motion and static stretching) and strength & power training (which will also help joint stabilization) are the best ways to reach your optimal stride length level.

Other Sprinting Tips/Cues

  • Hips tall
  • Foot strikes on forefoot and under the centre of mass
  • Ankle steps over the knee
  • Shoulders down and relaxed
  • Face and neck relaxed
  • Tight stomach, flat back, hips forward
  • The foot hits the ground a short distance in front of the centre of mass, the farther away the foot strikes away from the centre of mass, the higher the braking force
  • Toe up - reduces hamstring fatigue
  • Heel up
  • Knee up
  • Drive with the elbows

Article Reference

This article first appeared in:

  • BETH, P. (2007) How to improve your sprinting speed. Brian Mackenzie's Successful Coaching, (ISSN 1745-7513/ 46/ October), p. 7-8

Page Reference

The reference for this page is:

  • BETH, P. (2007) How to improve your sprinting speed [WWW] Available from: http://www.brianmac.co.uk/articles/scni46a3.htm [Accessed

About the Author

Patrick Beth is a co-owner of Athletes' Acceleration, Inc, a company devoted to performance enhancement whose mission is to improve the knowledge base of motivated coaches and athletes in order to improve athletic performance. He is a Performance Consultant certified by the National Strength and Conditioning Association (CSCS), the American Council of Sports Medicine (HFI), the National Academy of Sports Medicine (PES) and is a USA track and Field Level II Coach in the Sprints, Hurdles and Jumps.

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