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Endurance

Resistance Training in Cold Weather

Danny O'Dell explains how to cope with resistance training in those cold climates

Resistance training places high internal and external load demands on the human body. It must be physically prepared to meet and exceed these artificially designed stresses. To successfully adapt, conditions within the body must be favourable. Temperature variations, however, can sometimes overpower the metabolic responses of the organism.

The benefits

Weight training in an unheated building is the gold standard for hardcore lifting. Anyone can go to an air-conditioned or heated commercial gym to lift, but how many lifters actually look forward to exercising in the ambience of a near freezing outbuilding gym. It separates the serious true strength athlete from the wannabe's.

I am NOT saying a cold environment is a bed of roses, but it can be a strong motivator to keep moving and stay in the correct work-to-rest ratio. Resting is not an option when it is cold. Movement produces heat and heat keeps the body ready for action. Under certain conditions, however, it can be downright dangerous to be out in the cold. If you develop any chest pains when you exercise in the cold, but not when it's warm outside, see your doctor. The cold air hitting your face constricts the blood vessels; this in turn raises your blood pressure, which makes your heart work harder to pump blood to the body. The heart rate also slows, so less blood reaches the heart. If your heart is working harder, it needs more blood. But the slower heart rate is bringing less blood which results in decreased oxygen supply. Now your heart hurts.

The United States Air Force conducts one of the world's premier Air Crew Survival Schools. The training provided through this school specifically addresses cold weather survival by stating the following in the instructor's manual:

"Cold is a serious stress source, even in mild degrees it lowers efficiency. Extreme cold numbs the body and dulls the will to do anything except get warm. Cold numbs up the body by lowering the flow of blood to the extremities (we use these in ALL of our exercises) and results in sleepiness". (USAF 1985)[6]

The authors of Exercise Physiology state: "the normal heat transfer gradient is from the body to the environment, and core temperature is generally maintained without physiologic strain. In extreme cold however excessive heat loss can occur, particularly when the person is resting."(Katch et al. 1996)[3]

Resting between sets is normal, especially when working in the 85 to 95% 1RM range. Schniepp et al. (2002)[5] reported the results of tests run on ten well-trained cyclists and their response to cold water immersion.

The cyclists, who were exposed to cold water prior to a strength-cycling test, clearly showed the adverse effects the cold temperature had on power output. The cold affected blood flow, metabolism, and the balance of agonist-antagonist muscular activity. "These factors will undoubtedly affect the rate of energy production and muscular efficiency." (Schniepp 2002)[5]

Ferritti (1992)[7] and cited by Schniepp et al. (2002)[5] "demonstrated a temperature-dependent relationship on the rate of Adenosine Triphosphate hydrolysis, as a reduction in ATP resynthesis occurs with an associated decrease in the rate of cross bridge detachment. A relatively greater number of cross-bridge attachments have been found in cooler muscles, resulting in an increase in power absorption proportional to the external work required to lengthen the muscle." If ATP is slow in breaking down, then power decreases cannot be far behind.

Faulker et al. (1992)[8] and cited by Schniepp et al. (2002)[5] suggests, in addition, that:

  • "an increase in power absorption by antagonist muscles after muscle cooling may affect coordination, mainly manifesting at faster contraction velocities" " "results from this study demonstrated a significant condition by trial interaction as maximum power decreased significantly more after cold water immersion than under normal conditions"
  • "in cooler muscles there is an extended time of relaxation that reflects prolongation of cross-bridge attachment and will result in a reduction of cross-bridge cycling. A reduction in muscle temperature may also impair the activation of motor units during a short time interval, possibly because of lower nerve impulse frequency. As a result, coordinated movement may be affected adversely. The body tries to remain at the optimum temperature through a series of internal regulating mechanisms"
  • "the thermoregulatory defence against cold is mediated by internal temperature NOT by the body's heat production per se," according to Katch, et al. "The greatest contribution of muscle to defend against cold occurs during physical activity"(Katch et al. 1996)[3]

Shivering is the body's attempt to heat itself up through muscle action but it stops at core temperatures of 85 to 90 degrees. Normally a person exercising will not become this cold. If they do then something is drastically wrong.

We function best at core temperatures between 96 to 102 degrees Fahrenheit, and exposures to extremes can result in substantial decreases in physical efficiency (USAF 1985)[6]. Keeping our core in the suggested efficient range can be relatively easy if a few precautions are taken at the outset. Cold temperatures work against your power production in the weight room, unless you are prepared to address the temperature dilemma. Overcoming the cold is possible, but it takes effort and planning.

Heat Loss

Clearly, then, in order to maximize gains in a cold environment, some pre training changes must take place. Knowledge of how and where heat is lost will serve as a beginning point.

The skin and tissues of the body strive to remain at a constant temperature despite the fluctuations of the external temperatures. Regulation is by the circulating blood removing heat from the working cells. This excess energy is transported to the surface of the skin where it is exposed to the environment.

Heat loss occurs in five ways: conduction, convection, evaporation, radiation and respiration. We will concern ourselves only with the conduction, evaporation and respiration of body heat while in the cold weight room. Obviously, respiration will play a role in heat loss if we are breathing heavily during our squats and dead lifts.

  • Conduction is heat loss through touching body parts on colder surfaces (remember warmth rapidly transfers to the colder area)
  • Each time you grip the bar, body heat is lost through your hands to the cold bar and every time you lay on the bench you lose body heat as it transfers a portion to the bench
  • Evaporation is a form of heat loss that is familiar to all athletes. Internal body heat results in the sweat response, the sweat evaporates and thus heat is removed
  • Sweating is a good thing, but if the clothing becomes wet the insulating factor of the clothing decreases by about 90%. This is not good if you are trying to stay warm during sets
  • You should remember to drink fluids regularly as dehydration adversely affects the ability to regulate body heat and it increases the risk of frostbite
  • Avoid alcohol and beverages that contain caffeine as they have a tendency to dehydrate the body. Dehydration brings fatigue.

According to Katch et al. (1996)[3] radiation of heat accounts for approximately 65% of the total heat loss. Heat is lost rapidly from an uncovered head. The head, neck, hands, armpits, groin and feet all lose heat due to the close proximity of the blood vessels to the surface of the skin.

The head being about "8% of the total body surface can lose as much as 30 to 40%" of the total heat loss." This is a substantial amount of heat loss, and if we are to continue to exercise in an effective manner, it must be stopped. Clothing is one line of defence against the cold. Clothing, however, derives its insulation from the dead air that surrounds each fibre, so adding more layers of clothing adds more dead air space around your body. The clothing keeps the dead air close to the skin and prevents it from circulating away. "The thicker the zone of trapped air next to the skin, the more effective the insulation."(USAF 1985)[6]

What you should wear

"Likewise, clothing next to the skin must also be effective in transporting moisture (wicking action) away from the body's surface to the next insulating material layer for evaporation." Polypropylene, a synthetic that insulates and dries quickly, can be very effective in this capacity. Good workout clothing should "match the weather" and it should "provide a semitropical micro climate for the body and prevent chilling." (Arnheim 1989)[1]

The covering should be of a synthetic fabric such as polyester, which is lightweight, dries easily and retains its insulating properties even when wet. The fabric should also breathe, i.e., if you sweat, it should allow the water vapours to escape and not be trapped next to your skin. "If the water vapour cannot evaporate through the clothing it will condense, freeze and reduce the insulation value of the clothing and cause the body temperature to go down." (USAF 1985)[6]

As a side note, the old saying of "cotton kills" is accurate in the weight room as well. When cotton gets wet it loses all of its insulating qualities and remains wet for a long time. Once a piece of clothing becomes wet, especially cotton, heat is transferred outwardly at 25 times its normal rate (USAF 1985)[6] . Wet clothing "actually facilitates heat loss from the body because water conducts heat much faster than air."(Katch et al. 1996)[3]

Take care to layer your workout clothing. This gives you a chance to regulate the heat by removing some but not all as you warm up during the session. It is even better to have a button or zipper at the top to allow for a stove pipe effect. A stovepipe effect means you open the top part and allow the air to circulate from the bottom of the garment to escape out the unbuttoned or unzipped top portion.

Naturally, good shoes are essential components of lifting gear. You should not go out to lift in the cold with sandals or tennis shoes. Protect your toes and feet by wearing the appropriate footwear.

Exposure to cold

A danger in working out in an unheated room for an extended time comes from exposure to the cold. Frostbite, frostnip and the extreme, hypothermia, can result if care is not taken to prevent their onset. Prevention of this is essential. Keeping the nose, ears, cheeks, chin, hands and fingers adequately covered and warm will, in most cases, prevent frostbite and frostnip.

Also be on the alert for symptoms of Hypothermia, a dangerous lowering of the core temperature, which creeps up on a person. Confusion, lack of coordination, and slurred speech are just a few of the symptoms to be aware of when in the cold for a long time. Immediate warming up is needed in the early stage of hypothermia. If advanced stage symptoms are present then CORRECT MEDICAL TREATMENT IS REQUIRED.

Now you have learned a few of the problems of cold weather exercising it is time to take advantage of the situation. A solid warm up is essential. A warm up prepares the body for the upcoming activity by loosening the muscles, moving the blood faster, and increasing the breathing rate.

Arnheim (1989)[1] states in his book Modern Principles of Athletic Training "An athlete may fail to warm up sufficiently or may become chilled because of relative inactivity for varying periods of time demanded by the particular sport either during competition of training: consequently the athlete is exceedingly prone to injury."

Peripheral Vasoconstriction

Another danger to be aware of is that "peripheral vasoconstriction during cold weather predisposes the extremities to cold injury, the temperature of the skin and extremities may fall to dangerous levels. Early signs include tingling and numbness in the fingers/toes, or a burning sensation of the ears/nose. If these sign are not heeded frostbite may occur." (Katch et al. 1996)[3]

Warm up

Even though you have more than likely just left your nice warm home to go outside, you still have to warm up your muscles prior to working out. Begin by making circles with your arms and legs, ever widening circles until the outer ranges of motion are reached. These are not ballistic moves, they are dynamic in nature.

Next, do some light cardiovascular work to get the heart rate up into the working zone. 5 to 10 minutes depending on the temperature; the colder it is the longer this portion needs to be in order to get physically ready to workout. Exercise selection will also dictate the length and time spent in the warm up. If larger muscles are being worked, then a longer time will be required to warm them up.

Move on to the movement specific activity, i.e. if you are squatting then do a few free body weight squats. Add a bit of weight to the bar and do a few more squats. Continue in this fashion until you are thoroughly warmed up. (But don't do the routine in the warm up.) Now you should be ready to hit the heavy weights to begin your workout routine.

Summary

The cold weather triad of cold temperatures, heat loss, and an inadequate warm up are invitations to injury if left unheeded.

  • Warm up thoroughly before attacking the heavy weights
  • Protect yourself when lifting in a cold weight room by wearing and layering quality insulated clothing that breathes as you perspire
  • Cover your head and prevent heat loss where possible
  • Pay attention to the signs and symptoms of frostbite and hypothermia

PS: Keep this in mind as you lift in the cold. There are no mosquitoes around are there? The flies are non-existent and the fan is not making noise as it blows the summer hot air around. Training just does not get any better than this.


References

  1. ARNHEIM, D. (1989) Modern Principles of Athletic Training. p. 303-304
  2. HOUSTON, C. et al. (1997) Manual of Medical Information. Simon and Schuster. p. 1345-1347.
  3. KATCH, F.I et al. (1996) Exercise Physiology. 4th ed. Lippincott. p. 351, 502-3, 505-21.
  4. MICHELE, L.(1995) The Sports Medicine Bible. Harper Collins. p. 7-9.
  5. SCHNEIPP, J. et al. (2002) The Effects of Cold-water Immersion on Power Output and Heart rate on Elite Cyclists. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 16, p. 561
  6. U.S.A.F (1985) United States Air Force Search and Rescue Survival Training: Af Regulation 64-4. Metro Books
  7. FERRITTI, G.M. (1992) "Effects of temperature on the maximal instantaneous muscular power of humans. Euro j. Appl. Physiol. 64, p. 112-116
  8. FAULKER, J.A. et al. (1990) Muscle temperature of mammals: Cooling impairs most functional properties, Am. J. Physiol. 28, p. 259-265

Article Reference

This article first appeared in:

  • O'DELL, D. (2004) Resistance Training in Cold Weather. Brian Mackenzie's Successful Coaching, (ISSN 1745-7513/ 16 / October), p. 4-6

Page Reference

The reference for this page is:

  • O'DELL, D. (2004) Resistance Training in Cold Weather [WWW] Available from: http://www.brianmac.co.uk/articles/scni16a3.htm [Accessed

About the Author

Danny O`Dell is a NSCA Certified Strength and Conditioning coach from the USA. He is the author of a number of training manuals including: The Ultimate Bench Press Manual, Wilderness Basics, Strength training Secrets, Composite training and Power up your Driving Muscles. Danny has published articles in national and international magazines describing the benefits of living the healthy fitness lifestyle.

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